Entrepreneurial behaviors in hostile environments are researched using a two-step approach: identifying sources of effective entrepreneurial action and developing a research design on firms striving to survive in a hostile environment. Survey data was collected on 213 manufacturing and service firms in Calabria, Italy. According to the Fraser Institute Index of Economic Freedom for Europe, from an institutional perspective, Italy is a hostile business environment. Research results allowed for the identification of an entrepreneurship typology in response to a hostile environment. An exploratory factor analysis followed by a confirmatory factor analysis revealed four types of entrepreneurial behavior. Relational behavior ischaracterized by a tendency to form relationships with other institutions with the purpo