This paper deals with the study of the early Christian baptistery of Santa Maria Maggiore located in Nocera Superiore (SA), starting from the 3D survey conducted by laser scanner, driven by the need to read the monument based on accurate measurements. Although it is very well known and investigated, the representations and surveys of the past that have come down to us do not guarantee the reliability of the measurements. The new survey conducted not only aims to fill this gap, but it is considered as a cognitive tool to evoke at time latent architectural meanings. The architectural structure was analysed starting from the critical study of bibliographic and iconographic sources that allowed knowledge of the modifications it has undergone over time. The dataset produced allowed not only the elaboration of traditional devices (plans, sections and elevations), but also the development of thematic drawings that deepen the study of the building from the point of view of its geometries and irregularities (deviations between ideal features and real surfaces, verticality defects, asymmetries, ...), which were not included in the old representations because they were often considered insignificant, but which instead provide a useful basis for analysing and safeguarding the monument.
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