n ecological immunology is of great importance the study of the immune defense plasticity as response to a variable environment. In holometabolous insects the fitness of each developmental stage depends on the capacity to mount a response (i.e. physiological, behavioral) under environmental pressure. The immune response is a highly dynamic trait closely related to the ecology of organism and the variation in the expression of an immune system component may affect another fitness relevant trait of organism (i.e. growth, reproduction).The present research quantified immune function (total and differential number of hemocytes, phagocytosis in vivo and activity of phenoloxidase) in the pupal stage of Carabus (Chaetocarabus) lefebvrei. Moreover, the cellular and humoral immune function was compared across the larval, pupal and adult stages to evaluate the changes in immunocompetence across the developmental stages. Four types of circulating hemocytes were characterized via transmission electron microscopy in the pupal stage: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The artificial non-self-challenge treatments performed in vivo have shown that plasmatocytes and granulocytes are responsible for phagocytosis. The level of active phenoloxidase increases with the degree of pigmentation of the cuticle in each stage. In C. lefebvrei, there are different strategies in term of immune response to enhance the fitness of each life stage. The results have shown that the variation in speed and specificity of immune function across the developmental stages is correlated with differences in infection risk, life expectancy and biological function of the life cycle.
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|Titolo:||Phenoloxidase activity among developmental stages and pupal cell types of the ground beetle Carabus (Chaetocarabus) lefebvrei (Coleoptera, Carabidae)|
GIGLIO, Anita (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|