The insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) can translocate to the nuclei and nucleoli of several types of cells. Nuclear translocation can be induced by an activated insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), and by certain oncogenes, such as the Simian virus 40 T antigen and v-src. We have asked whether IRS-2 could also translocate to the nuclei. In addition, we have studied the effects of functional mutations in the IGF-IR on nuclear translocation of IRS proteins. IRS-2 translocates to the nuclei of mouse embryo fibroblasts expressing the IGF-IR, but, at variance with IRS-1, does not translocate in cells expressing the Simian virus 40 T antigen. Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the IGF-IR abrogate translocation of the IRS proteins. Other mutations in the IGF-IR, which do not interfere with its mitogenicity but inhibit its transforming capacity, result in a decrease in translocation, especially to the nucleoli. Nuclear IRS-1 and IRS-2 interact with the upstream binding factor, which is a key regulator of RNA polymerase I activity and, therefore, rRNA synthesis. In 32D cells, wild-type, but not mutant, IRS-1 causes a significant activation of the ribosomal DNA promoter. The interaction of nuclear IRS proteins with upstream binding factor 1 constitutes the first direct link of these proteins with the ribosomal DNA transcription machinery.
Insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling and nuclear translocation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 / Sun, H; Tu, X; Prisco, M; Wu, A; Casaburi, Ivan; Baserga, R.. - In: MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY. - ISSN 0888-8809. - 17:3(2003), pp. 472-486.