Plutonic and gneissic rocks of the Sila Massif in the uppermost portion of the Neto drainage basin (Calabria, Southern Italy) weather and erode under a humid Mediterranean climate. During the development of weathering pro®les, a combination of chemical weathering and granular disintegration processes occurred. Chemical weathering involves a loss of both plagioclase (mainly during grus generation) and K-feldspar (mainly during soil formation). This loss is attributed to transformation of plagioclase to clay minerals and to leaching and dissolution of K-feldspar. Sand composition is quartzofeldspathic and nearly homogeneous along the main channel of the Neto River, even where the river cuts across a blanket of sedimentary cover. Thus, ¯uvial transport does not alter sand composition within the Neto drainage basin. Petrographic indices are effective in (1) discriminating between contributions from similar (granite and gneiss) source rocks (Qm/F); (2) relating the provenance of plutoniclastic and gneissiclastic sand found in the headwaters to grus horizons (Qm/F; Q/Rg); and (3) distinguishing between upstream ®rst-cycle and downstream multicycle sand (Q/Rg). This last distinction is further emphasized by considering both aphanitic and phaneritic varieties of rock fragments (RgRmRs diagram). Chemical weathering is the main sand producer within the regolithic environment in northern Calabria. In addition, rapid erosion resulting from steep slopes removes weathered products, and rapid and short transport leads to minimal sediment maturation. In general, the F/Q index is climate and relief dependent; thus, it should be used in conjunction with palaeoclimatic and palaeophysiographic evidence for provenance interpretations of ancient quartzofeldspathic sandstones.

The effects of source rocks and chemical weathering on the petrogenesis of siliciclastic sand from the Neto River (Calabria, Italy): implications for provenance studies

LE PERA, Emilia;CRITELLI, Salvatore;
2001

Abstract

Plutonic and gneissic rocks of the Sila Massif in the uppermost portion of the Neto drainage basin (Calabria, Southern Italy) weather and erode under a humid Mediterranean climate. During the development of weathering pro®les, a combination of chemical weathering and granular disintegration processes occurred. Chemical weathering involves a loss of both plagioclase (mainly during grus generation) and K-feldspar (mainly during soil formation). This loss is attributed to transformation of plagioclase to clay minerals and to leaching and dissolution of K-feldspar. Sand composition is quartzofeldspathic and nearly homogeneous along the main channel of the Neto River, even where the river cuts across a blanket of sedimentary cover. Thus, ¯uvial transport does not alter sand composition within the Neto drainage basin. Petrographic indices are effective in (1) discriminating between contributions from similar (granite and gneiss) source rocks (Qm/F); (2) relating the provenance of plutoniclastic and gneissiclastic sand found in the headwaters to grus horizons (Qm/F; Q/Rg); and (3) distinguishing between upstream ®rst-cycle and downstream multicycle sand (Q/Rg). This last distinction is further emphasized by considering both aphanitic and phaneritic varieties of rock fragments (RgRmRs diagram). Chemical weathering is the main sand producer within the regolithic environment in northern Calabria. In addition, rapid erosion resulting from steep slopes removes weathered products, and rapid and short transport leads to minimal sediment maturation. In general, the F/Q index is climate and relief dependent; thus, it should be used in conjunction with palaeoclimatic and palaeophysiographic evidence for provenance interpretations of ancient quartzofeldspathic sandstones.
chemical weathering; Fluvial basin; provenance,
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/139229
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