Membrane contactors represent an emerging technology in which the membrane is used as a tool for inter phase mass transfer operations: the membrane does not act as a selective barrier, but the separation is based on the phase equilibrium. In principle, all traditional stripping, scrubbing, absorption, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, emulsification, liquid-liquid extraction, and mass transfer catalysis processes can be carried out according to this configuration. This review, specifically addressed to membrane distillation (MD), osmotic distillation (OD), and membrane crystallization (MCr), illustrates the fundamental concepts related to heat and mass transport phenomena through microporous membranes, appropriate membrane properties, and module design criteria. The most significant applications of these novel membrane operations, concerning pure/fresh water production, wastewater treatment, concentration of agro food solutions, and concentration/ crystallization of organic and biological solutions, are also presented and discussed.
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|Titolo:||Membrane Distillation and related operations. A Review|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|