Context: The premature newborns are prone to develop both early onset and late onset neonatal sepsis. The major causes of this phenomenon rely on the immaturity of the immune system, which has reduced capability to respond adequately to pathogens. Evidence Acquisition: Titles and abstracts of previous papers were scanned before reading the full-text, in order to retrieve appropriate information. The databases used for searching were PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase for articles published before 1st of July, 2016. Secondary search for articles cited in reference lists were identiﬁed by the primary search. This review focused on neonatal sepsis incidence and the associated immune response with regards to microRNAs of human milk as a new microelement that enables regulation of innate immunity functions. Results: Since human milk is a valuable source of microRNAs, a better understanding of its content will open a new therapeutic avenue for the clinical management of infectious diseases aﬀecting premature newborns. The variation in miRNAs quantity in human milk needs to be considered. Mother’s milk can have diﬀerent amounts of miRNAs and the identiﬁcation of a microMilk batch richer of miRNAs can be a nutrition intervention method for modulating innate immunity in clinical management of premature newborns. Conclusions: Routine translation of the microMilk concept for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), in the management of premature newborns could be a way of defending premature newborns and Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants from both early and late sepsis.
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