An ultra-miniaturised (mass 1.5 kg; volume ~22 × 6 × 12 cm3) instrument which combines X-raydiffraction and fluorescence has been developed for the mineralogical and chemical characterization ofMartian soils/rocks and was included in the ExoMars-Pasteur payload. The simultaneous in situ acquisitionof elemental and mineralogical information would significantly improve any robotic missions and mayunravel doubtful points regarding the mantle composition, crustal evolution and resource potential. Theinstrument employs a fixed reflection geometry to fulfil the diffraction principle which can be applied tounprepared sample as well. The instrument basically consists of a radioisotope as source of X-rays and aCCD-based detection system. This is the first successful diffraction experiment using a radioisotope sincethe early tests in the 60s. For terrestrial application the radioisotope can be easily replaced with a cathodictube. The reduced dimension as well as the possibility to perform non-destructive analysis makes itsuitable for terrestrial applications, particularly in the archaeometry field. We are envisaging an X-raytomographer to map the mineralogical and elemental composition of an artefact (i.e., painting, pottery)directly on the object without sample preparation. Nowadays, X-ray radiography or computer tomographyare becoming standard techniques widely used and accepted by art historians, archaeologists, curators andconservators as these methods enable information about the manufacturing process and the condition of anobject without touching the artefact or even taking original sample material.

Development of an ultra-miniaturised XRD/XRF instrument for the in situ mineralogical and chemical analysis of planetary soils and rocks: implication for archaeometry

PILUSO, EUGENIO;
2015

Abstract

An ultra-miniaturised (mass 1.5 kg; volume ~22 × 6 × 12 cm3) instrument which combines X-raydiffraction and fluorescence has been developed for the mineralogical and chemical characterization ofMartian soils/rocks and was included in the ExoMars-Pasteur payload. The simultaneous in situ acquisitionof elemental and mineralogical information would significantly improve any robotic missions and mayunravel doubtful points regarding the mantle composition, crustal evolution and resource potential. Theinstrument employs a fixed reflection geometry to fulfil the diffraction principle which can be applied tounprepared sample as well. The instrument basically consists of a radioisotope as source of X-rays and aCCD-based detection system. This is the first successful diffraction experiment using a radioisotope sincethe early tests in the 60s. For terrestrial application the radioisotope can be easily replaced with a cathodictube. The reduced dimension as well as the possibility to perform non-destructive analysis makes itsuitable for terrestrial applications, particularly in the archaeometry field. We are envisaging an X-raytomographer to map the mineralogical and elemental composition of an artefact (i.e., painting, pottery)directly on the object without sample preparation. Nowadays, X-ray radiography or computer tomographyare becoming standard techniques widely used and accepted by art historians, archaeologists, curators andconservators as these methods enable information about the manufacturing process and the condition of anobject without touching the artefact or even taking original sample material.
Planetary instrument; Diffraction; Archaeometry
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/154491
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