Farnesene is a sesquiterpene with semiochemical activity involved in interspecies communication. This molecule, known for its phytotoxic potential and its effects on root morphology and anatomy, caused anisotropic growth, bold roots and a “left-handedness” phenotype. These clues suggested an alteration of auxin distribution, and for this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate its effects on: i) PIN-FORMED proteins (PIN) distribution, involved in polar auxin transport; ii) PIN genes expression iii) apical meristem anatomy of primary root, in 7 days old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with farnesene 250 μM. The following GFP constructs: pSCR::SCR-GFP, pDR5::GFP, pPIN1::PIN1-GFP, pPIN2::PIN2-GFP, pPIN3::PIN3-GFP, pPIN4::PIN4-GFP and pPIN7::PIN7-GFP were used to evaluate auxin distribution. Farnesene caused a reduction in meristematic zone size, an advancement in transition zone, suggesting a premature exit of cells from the meristematic zone, a reduction in cell division and an impairment between epidermal and cortex cells. The auxin-responsive reporter pDR5::GFP highlighted that auxin distribution was impaired in farnesene-treated roots, where auxin distribution appeared maximum in the quiescent center and columella initial cells, without extending to mature columella cells. This finding was further confirmed by the analysis on PIN transport proteins distribution, assessed on individual constructs, which showed an extreme alteration mainly dependent on the PIN 3, 4 and 7, involved in pattern specification during root development and auxin redistribution. Finally, farnesene treatment caused a down-regulation of all the auxin transport genes studied. We propose that farnesene affected auxin transport and distribution causing the alteration of root meristem, and consequently the left-handedness phenotype.

The allelochemical farnesene affects Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem altering auxin distribution

Bruno L.
;
Pacenza M.;Forgione I.;Bitonti M. B.;
2017

Abstract

Farnesene is a sesquiterpene with semiochemical activity involved in interspecies communication. This molecule, known for its phytotoxic potential and its effects on root morphology and anatomy, caused anisotropic growth, bold roots and a “left-handedness” phenotype. These clues suggested an alteration of auxin distribution, and for this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate its effects on: i) PIN-FORMED proteins (PIN) distribution, involved in polar auxin transport; ii) PIN genes expression iii) apical meristem anatomy of primary root, in 7 days old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with farnesene 250 μM. The following GFP constructs: pSCR::SCR-GFP, pDR5::GFP, pPIN1::PIN1-GFP, pPIN2::PIN2-GFP, pPIN3::PIN3-GFP, pPIN4::PIN4-GFP and pPIN7::PIN7-GFP were used to evaluate auxin distribution. Farnesene caused a reduction in meristematic zone size, an advancement in transition zone, suggesting a premature exit of cells from the meristematic zone, a reduction in cell division and an impairment between epidermal and cortex cells. The auxin-responsive reporter pDR5::GFP highlighted that auxin distribution was impaired in farnesene-treated roots, where auxin distribution appeared maximum in the quiescent center and columella initial cells, without extending to mature columella cells. This finding was further confirmed by the analysis on PIN transport proteins distribution, assessed on individual constructs, which showed an extreme alteration mainly dependent on the PIN 3, 4 and 7, involved in pattern specification during root development and auxin redistribution. Finally, farnesene treatment caused a down-regulation of all the auxin transport genes studied. We propose that farnesene affected auxin transport and distribution causing the alteration of root meristem, and consequently the left-handedness phenotype.
Allelochemicals; Arabidopsis; Cell division; Polar auxin transport; Root anatomy; Root meristem; Physiology; Genetics; Plant Science
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/264888
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