We previously demonstrated that treatment of the H295R adrenocortical cancer cell line with the non-steroidal, high-affinity GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) agonist G-1 reduced tumor growth in vitro and in vivo through a GPER independent action. Moreover, we observed that G-1 treatment induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis following a sustained ERK1/2 activation. However, the precise mechanisms causing these effects were not clarified. Starting from our preliminary published results, we performed a microarray study that clearly evidenced a strong and significative up-regulation of EGR-1 gene in H295R cells treated for 24h with micromolar concentration of G-1. The microarray findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis as well as by immunofluorescence that revealed a strong nuclear staining for EGR-1 after G-1 treatment. EGR-1 is a point of convergence of many intracellular signaling cascades that control tumor cell growth and proliferation as well as others that relate to cell death machinery. Here we found that the increased Egr-1 expression was a consequence of G-1-mediated ROS-dependent ERK activation that were promptly reversed by the presence of the antioxidant n-acetyl-cysteine. Finally, we observed that silencing EGR-1 gene expression reversed the main effects induced by G-1 in ACC cells, including upregulation of the negative regulator of cell cycle, p21Waf1/Cip1and the positive regulator of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, BAX, as well as the cell growth inhibition. The identified ROS/MAPK/Egr-1/BAX pathway as a potential off-target effect of the G-1 could be useful in implementing the pharmacological approach for ACC therapy.

GPER-independent inhibition of adrenocortical cancer growth by G-1 involves ROS/Egr-1/BAX pathway

Casaburi, Ivan;Avena, Paola;De Luca, Arianna;Sirianni, Rosa;Rago, Vittoria;Chimento, Adele;Pezzi, Vincenzo
2017

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that treatment of the H295R adrenocortical cancer cell line with the non-steroidal, high-affinity GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) agonist G-1 reduced tumor growth in vitro and in vivo through a GPER independent action. Moreover, we observed that G-1 treatment induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis following a sustained ERK1/2 activation. However, the precise mechanisms causing these effects were not clarified. Starting from our preliminary published results, we performed a microarray study that clearly evidenced a strong and significative up-regulation of EGR-1 gene in H295R cells treated for 24h with micromolar concentration of G-1. The microarray findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis as well as by immunofluorescence that revealed a strong nuclear staining for EGR-1 after G-1 treatment. EGR-1 is a point of convergence of many intracellular signaling cascades that control tumor cell growth and proliferation as well as others that relate to cell death machinery. Here we found that the increased Egr-1 expression was a consequence of G-1-mediated ROS-dependent ERK activation that were promptly reversed by the presence of the antioxidant n-acetyl-cysteine. Finally, we observed that silencing EGR-1 gene expression reversed the main effects induced by G-1 in ACC cells, including upregulation of the negative regulator of cell cycle, p21Waf1/Cip1and the positive regulator of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, BAX, as well as the cell growth inhibition. The identified ROS/MAPK/Egr-1/BAX pathway as a potential off-target effect of the G-1 could be useful in implementing the pharmacological approach for ACC therapy.
Adrenocortical cancer cell; Egr-1; GPER agonist G-1; Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway; ROS; Oncology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/269560
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