Exosomes are extracellular vesicles involved in cell-to-cell communication. Previous large scale proteomics revealed that they contain SLC proteins. However, no data on the function of exosomal SLCs is available, so far. An SLC localized in exosomes was here characterized for the first time: the carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5). The protein was detected by Western Blot analysis in HEK293 exosomes. To investigate the functional properties of the exosomal OCTN2, the proteins extracted from vesicles were reconstituted into proteolipsomes and the transport function was measured as uptake of3H-carnitine. Transport was stimulated by sodium and was dependent on pH.3H-carnitine uptake was inhibited by Acetyl-carnitine, but not by Asn, Gln and Arg thus excluding interference by ATB0,+, an amino acid transporter which also recognizes carnitine. Cardiolipin failed to stimulate transport, excluding the activity of the mitochondrial Carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter. Increased level of exosomal OCTN2 was induced by treatment of HEK293 with the pro-inflammatory cytokine INFγ. All data concurred to demonstrate that OCTN2 present in exosomes is fully functional and is in its native conformation. Functional OCTN2 was detected also in human urinary exosomes, thus suggesting the OCTN2 exosomal protein as a candidate biomarker for inflammation related pathologies.
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|Titolo:||Characterization of Exosomal SLC22A5 (OCTN2) carnitine transporter|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|