Pyrogen content is one of the critical quality attributes impacting the safety of a product, and there is an increasing need for assays that can reliably measure this attribute in vaccines. The Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) are the canonical animal-based pyrogen tests currently used to release vaccines; however, there are several drawbacks associated with these tests when applied to Bexsero, intrinsically pyrogenic product, containing a meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle component. While the RPT, as applied to Bexsero at its given dilution, ensures safe vaccine, it is highly variable and prone to false positive results. On the other hand, the LAL assay although quantitative, can detect only endotoxin pyrogens and is not sufficient for monitoring the safety of Bexsero, which contains both LPS and non-endotoxin pyrogens. Being aware of these limitations of the RPT and LAL when applied to Bexsero, the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) which is sensitive to both endotoxin and non-endotoxin based pyrogens has been developed as an alternative pyrogen test. Here, the development and the validation of a MAT assay adapted from the European pharmacopoeia for Bexsero, is described. The MAT assay is then used for monitoring the safety and consistency of Bexsero vaccines at release, providing great advantages in terms of reduced variability with respect to RPT, reduction of animal use, in line with the 3Rs principle concerning the protection of animals and faster time to market. In addition the correlation of the MAT to the RPT has been demonstrated supporting the replacement of the in vivo method and the potential application of the assay to other intrinsically pyrogenic vaccines.

Monocyte-activation test to reliably measure the pyrogenic content of a vaccine: An in vitro pyrogen test to overcome in vivo limitations

Franceschi Sara;
2019

Abstract

Pyrogen content is one of the critical quality attributes impacting the safety of a product, and there is an increasing need for assays that can reliably measure this attribute in vaccines. The Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) are the canonical animal-based pyrogen tests currently used to release vaccines; however, there are several drawbacks associated with these tests when applied to Bexsero, intrinsically pyrogenic product, containing a meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle component. While the RPT, as applied to Bexsero at its given dilution, ensures safe vaccine, it is highly variable and prone to false positive results. On the other hand, the LAL assay although quantitative, can detect only endotoxin pyrogens and is not sufficient for monitoring the safety of Bexsero, which contains both LPS and non-endotoxin pyrogens. Being aware of these limitations of the RPT and LAL when applied to Bexsero, the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) which is sensitive to both endotoxin and non-endotoxin based pyrogens has been developed as an alternative pyrogen test. Here, the development and the validation of a MAT assay adapted from the European pharmacopoeia for Bexsero, is described. The MAT assay is then used for monitoring the safety and consistency of Bexsero vaccines at release, providing great advantages in terms of reduced variability with respect to RPT, reduction of animal use, in line with the 3Rs principle concerning the protection of animals and faster time to market. In addition the correlation of the MAT to the RPT has been demonstrated supporting the replacement of the in vivo method and the potential application of the assay to other intrinsically pyrogenic vaccines.
Bexsero, Outer Membrane Vesicles, Monocyte Activation Test, Pyrogenicity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/288175
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