The reduction mechanism of Pt(IV) anticancer prodrugs, still today a matter of debate, assisted by one of the dominant reductants in human plasma, that is l-ascorbic acid in its monodeprotonated form, has been computationally examined in this work. In order to check what should be the influence on the reduction rate of the identity of the ligands in axial and equatorial position, both cisplatin and oxaliplatin derivatives have been studied, varying the ligands in axial position in connection with the role they should play as bridges, trans leaving species, and proton acceptors. OH, OAc, Cl, and Br ligands have been tested as bridging/leaving ligands, whereas Cl and aspirin have been used as trans labile and less labile ligands, respectively. The most recent theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the generally adopted grouping of reduction mechanisms into inner- and outer-sphere does not properly take into account all the viable alternatives. Therefore, inner-sphere mechanisms, classified as ligand-bridged, ligand-bridged-H transfer and enolate β-carbon attack, have been explored for all the complexes under investigation. Concerning the outer-sphere mechanism, redox potentials have been calculated adopting a recently proposed procedure based on the separation between electrochemical and chemical events to evaluate their propensity to be reduced. Moreover, according to the hypothesis that the outer-sphere reduction mechanism involves the sequential addition of two electrons causing the formation of a Pt(III) intermediate, the possibility that singlet and triplet pathways can cross for the Pt(IV) cisplatin derivative having two chlorido ligands in axial position has been explored in detail. Results show that the mechanism indicated as base-assisted outer sphere can become competitive with respect to the inner one if two singlet-triplet spin inversions occur. Results presented here are helpful in addressing synthetic strategies as they show that Pt(IV) prodrugs propensity to be reduced can be properly tuned and give indications on how this aim can be accomplished.

Antitumor Platinium(IV) Prodrugs: A Systematic Computational Exploration of Their Reduction Mechanism by l -Ascorbic Acid

DABBISH, ESLAM;Ponte, Fortuna;Russo, Nino;Sicilia, Emilia
2019

Abstract

The reduction mechanism of Pt(IV) anticancer prodrugs, still today a matter of debate, assisted by one of the dominant reductants in human plasma, that is l-ascorbic acid in its monodeprotonated form, has been computationally examined in this work. In order to check what should be the influence on the reduction rate of the identity of the ligands in axial and equatorial position, both cisplatin and oxaliplatin derivatives have been studied, varying the ligands in axial position in connection with the role they should play as bridges, trans leaving species, and proton acceptors. OH, OAc, Cl, and Br ligands have been tested as bridging/leaving ligands, whereas Cl and aspirin have been used as trans labile and less labile ligands, respectively. The most recent theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the generally adopted grouping of reduction mechanisms into inner- and outer-sphere does not properly take into account all the viable alternatives. Therefore, inner-sphere mechanisms, classified as ligand-bridged, ligand-bridged-H transfer and enolate β-carbon attack, have been explored for all the complexes under investigation. Concerning the outer-sphere mechanism, redox potentials have been calculated adopting a recently proposed procedure based on the separation between electrochemical and chemical events to evaluate their propensity to be reduced. Moreover, according to the hypothesis that the outer-sphere reduction mechanism involves the sequential addition of two electrons causing the formation of a Pt(III) intermediate, the possibility that singlet and triplet pathways can cross for the Pt(IV) cisplatin derivative having two chlorido ligands in axial position has been explored in detail. Results show that the mechanism indicated as base-assisted outer sphere can become competitive with respect to the inner one if two singlet-triplet spin inversions occur. Results presented here are helpful in addressing synthetic strategies as they show that Pt(IV) prodrugs propensity to be reduced can be properly tuned and give indications on how this aim can be accomplished.
Antineoplastic Agents; Ascorbic Acid; Cisplatin; Electron Transport; Humans; Models, Molecular; Organoplatinum Compounds; Oxidation-Reduction; Prodrugs; Reducing Agents; Thermodynamics; Physical and Theoretical Chemistry; Inorganic Chemistry
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/291239
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 17
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact