The objective of the study was to present a detailed clinical, genetic, and epigenetic characterization of 2 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) concordant dizygotic twins. The described cases underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations according to the motor neuron disease protocol of our referral center. Mutation analysis of the major causative genes related to ALS was performed. The methylation profile of the CpG island located in the promoter region of C9orf72 and in the repeat region itself was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of C9orf72 expansion carriers. The described cases presented an overlapping phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed the presence of an abnormal (>50 repeats) G4C2-repeat expansion in C9orf72. Both the direct bisulfite sequencing–sensitive and the methylation-sensitive HhaI assays did not reveal any DNA methylation at the CpG island 5ʹ of the G4C2 repeat in C9orf72. The (G4C2)n methylation assay indicated that also the expansion itself was not methylated in both twins, suggesting a probably intermediate allele expansion. This is the first report of ALS-concordant dizygotic twins carrying a C9orf72 expansion probably of intermediate length, and with a detailed clinical and genetic characterization. Twin studies add significant information about the mechanisms of C9orf72 expansion pleiotropism, probably driven by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.

Clinical features and genetic characterization of two dizygotic twins with C9orf72 expansion

Conforti, Francesca;
2018

Abstract

The objective of the study was to present a detailed clinical, genetic, and epigenetic characterization of 2 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) concordant dizygotic twins. The described cases underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations according to the motor neuron disease protocol of our referral center. Mutation analysis of the major causative genes related to ALS was performed. The methylation profile of the CpG island located in the promoter region of C9orf72 and in the repeat region itself was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of C9orf72 expansion carriers. The described cases presented an overlapping phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed the presence of an abnormal (>50 repeats) G4C2-repeat expansion in C9orf72. Both the direct bisulfite sequencing–sensitive and the methylation-sensitive HhaI assays did not reveal any DNA methylation at the CpG island 5ʹ of the G4C2 repeat in C9orf72. The (G4C2)n methylation assay indicated that also the expansion itself was not methylated in both twins, suggesting a probably intermediate allele expansion. This is the first report of ALS-concordant dizygotic twins carrying a C9orf72 expansion probably of intermediate length, and with a detailed clinical and genetic characterization. Twin studies add significant information about the mechanisms of C9orf72 expansion pleiotropism, probably driven by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; C9orf72 expansion; Phenotype; Twins; Neuroscience (all); Aging; Neurology (clinical); Developmental Biology; Geriatrics and Gerontology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/291508
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