The overexpression of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 is frequently found in various human cancers, such as those of the breast. However, PDE5’s role in the tumor microenvironment is still unknown. As PDE5 represents a high-value therapeutic target, we investigated whether the expression and function of PDE5 in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) may be clinically relevant to malignant progression. PDE5 expression was increased in human breast cancer stroma compared with normal stroma and was correlated to a shorter overall survival. Treatment of CAFs, isolated from breast tumor biopsies, with selective PDE5 inhibitors inhibited their proliferation, motility, and invasiveness, and negatively controlled tumor–stroma interactions in both ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ models. PDE5 stable overexpression transformed immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) towards an activated fibroblast phenotype, impacting their intrinsic characteristics and paracrine effects on breast cancer cell growth and migration through an enhanced production of the C-X-C motif chemokine 16 (CXCL16). On the other hand, CAF exposure to PDE5 inhibitors was associated with reduced CXCL16 expression and secretion. Importantly, CXCL16 levels in breast cancer stroma showed a strong correlation with PDE5 levels and poor patient outcomes. In conclusion, PDE5 is overexpressed in breast cancer stroma, enhances the tumor-stimulatory activities of fibroblasts, and impacts clinical outcomes; thus, we propose this enzyme as an attractive candidate for prognosis and a potential target for treatments in breast cancer patients.

Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is highly expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and enhances breast tumor progression

Catalano S.;Panza S.;Augimeri G.;Giordano C.;Malivindi R.;Gelsomino L.;Marsico S.;Giordano F.;Bonofiglio D.;Ando S.;Barone I.
2019

Abstract

The overexpression of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 is frequently found in various human cancers, such as those of the breast. However, PDE5’s role in the tumor microenvironment is still unknown. As PDE5 represents a high-value therapeutic target, we investigated whether the expression and function of PDE5 in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) may be clinically relevant to malignant progression. PDE5 expression was increased in human breast cancer stroma compared with normal stroma and was correlated to a shorter overall survival. Treatment of CAFs, isolated from breast tumor biopsies, with selective PDE5 inhibitors inhibited their proliferation, motility, and invasiveness, and negatively controlled tumor–stroma interactions in both ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ models. PDE5 stable overexpression transformed immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) towards an activated fibroblast phenotype, impacting their intrinsic characteristics and paracrine effects on breast cancer cell growth and migration through an enhanced production of the C-X-C motif chemokine 16 (CXCL16). On the other hand, CAF exposure to PDE5 inhibitors was associated with reduced CXCL16 expression and secretion. Importantly, CXCL16 levels in breast cancer stroma showed a strong correlation with PDE5 levels and poor patient outcomes. In conclusion, PDE5 is overexpressed in breast cancer stroma, enhances the tumor-stimulatory activities of fibroblasts, and impacts clinical outcomes; thus, we propose this enzyme as an attractive candidate for prognosis and a potential target for treatments in breast cancer patients.
Breast cancer; CXCL16; PDE5; Targeted therapy; Tumor microenvironment
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/298781
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