Galectins regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, mRNA splicing, and interactions with the extracellular matrix. Here we focus on the galectins in the reproductive system, particularly on a group of six galectins that first appears in anthropoid primates in conjunction with the evolution of highly invasive placentation and long gestation. Of these six, placental protein 13 (PP13, galectin 13) interacts with glycoproteins and glycolipids to enable successful pregnancy. PP13 is related to the development of a major obstetric syndrome, preeclampsia, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy which affects ten million pregnant women globally. Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and organ failure, and is often accompanied by fetal loss and major newborn disabilities. PP13 facilitates the expansion of uterine arteries and veins during pregnancy in an endothelial cell-dependent manner, via the eNOS and prostaglandin signaling pathways. PP13 acts through its carbohydrate recognition domain that binds to sugar residues of extracellular and connective tissue molecules, thus inducing structural stabilization of vessel expansion. Further, decidual PP13 aggregates may serve as a decoy that induces white blood cell apoptosis, contributing to the mother's immune tolerance to pregnancy. Lower first trimester PP13 level is one of the biomarkers to predict the subsequent risk to develop preeclampsia, while its molecular mutations/polymorphisms that are associated with reduced PP13 expression are accompanied by higher rates of preeclampsia We propose a targeted PP13 replenishing therapy to fight preeclampsia in carriers of these mutations.
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|Titolo:||Galectin 13 (PP13) facilitates remodeling and structural stabilization of maternal vessels during pregnancy|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|