FAD synthase (FADS, or FMN:ATP adenylyl transferase) coded by the FLAD1 gene is the last enzyme in the pathway of FAD synthesis. The mitochondrial isoform 1 and the cytosolic isoform 2 are characterized by the following two domains: the C-terminal PAPS domain (FADSy) performing FAD synthesis and pyrophosphorolysis; the N-terminal molybdopterin-binding domain (FADHy) performing a Co++ /K+-dependent FAD hydrolysis. Mutations in FLAD1 gene are responsible for riboflavin responsive and non-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and combined respiratory chain deficiency. In patients harboring frameshift mutations, a shorter isoform (hFADS6) containing the sole FADSy domain is produced representing an emergency protein. With the aim to ameliorate its function we planned to obtain an engineered more efficient hFADS6. Thus, the D238A mutant, resembling the D181A FMNAT “supermutant” of C. glabrata, was overproduced and purified. Kinetic analysis of this enzyme highlighted a general increase of Km, while the kcat was two-fold higher than that of WT. The data suggest that the FAD synthesis rate can be increased. Additional modifications could be performed to further improve the synthesis of FAD. These results correlate with previous data produced in our laboratory, and point towards the following proposals (i) FAD release is the rate limiting step of the catalytic cycle and (ii) ATP and FMN binding sites are synergistically connected.

Mutation of aspartate 238 in FAD synthase isoform 6 increases the specific activity by weakening the FAD binding

Leone P.;Galluccio M.;Indiveri C.;
2019

Abstract

FAD synthase (FADS, or FMN:ATP adenylyl transferase) coded by the FLAD1 gene is the last enzyme in the pathway of FAD synthesis. The mitochondrial isoform 1 and the cytosolic isoform 2 are characterized by the following two domains: the C-terminal PAPS domain (FADSy) performing FAD synthesis and pyrophosphorolysis; the N-terminal molybdopterin-binding domain (FADHy) performing a Co++ /K+-dependent FAD hydrolysis. Mutations in FLAD1 gene are responsible for riboflavin responsive and non-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and combined respiratory chain deficiency. In patients harboring frameshift mutations, a shorter isoform (hFADS6) containing the sole FADSy domain is produced representing an emergency protein. With the aim to ameliorate its function we planned to obtain an engineered more efficient hFADS6. Thus, the D238A mutant, resembling the D181A FMNAT “supermutant” of C. glabrata, was overproduced and purified. Kinetic analysis of this enzyme highlighted a general increase of Km, while the kcat was two-fold higher than that of WT. The data suggest that the FAD synthesis rate can be increased. Additional modifications could be performed to further improve the synthesis of FAD. These results correlate with previous data produced in our laboratory, and point towards the following proposals (i) FAD release is the rate limiting step of the catalytic cycle and (ii) ATP and FMN binding sites are synergistically connected.
FAD synthase; FADS isoform 6; FMN adenylyl transferase; Supermutant
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/300622
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact