Rare Earth Elements (REE; lanthanides and yttrium) are elements with high economic interest because they are critical elements for modern technologies. This study mainly focuses on the geochemical behavior of REE in hyperacid sulphate brines in volcanic-hydrothermal systems, where the precipitation of sulphate minerals occurs. Kawah Ijen lake, a hyperacid brine hosted in the Ijen caldera (Indonesia), was used as natural laboratory. ∑REE concentration in the lake water is high, ranging from 5.86 to 6.52 mg kg−1. The REE pattern of lake waters normalized to the average local volcanic rock is flat, suggesting isochemical dissolution. Minerals spontaneously precipitated in laboratory at 25 °C from water samples of Kawah Ijen were identified by XRD as gypsum. Microprobe analyses and the chemical composition of major constituents allow to identify possible other minerals precipitated: jarosite, Al-sulphate and Sr, Ba-sulphate. ∑REE concentration in minerals precipitated (mainly gypsum) range from 59.53 to 78.64 mg kg−1. The REE patterns of minerals precipitated normalized to the average local magmatic rock show enrichment in LREE. The REE distribution coefficient (KD), obtained from a ratio of its concentration in the minerals precipitated (mainly gypsum) and the lake water, shows higher values for LREE than HREE. KD-LREE/KD-HREE increases in the studied samples when the concentrations of BaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, Na2O and the sum of total oxides (except SO3 and CaO) decrease in the solid phase. The presence of secondary minerals different than gypsum can be the cause of the distribution coefficient variations. High concentrations of REE in Kawah Ijen volcanic lake have to enhance the interest on these environments as possible REE reservoir, stimulating future investigations. The comparison of the KD calculated for REE after mineral precipitation (mainly gypsum) from Kawah Ijen and Poás hyperacid volcanic lakes allow to generalize that the gypsum precipitation removes the LREE from water.

Mobility of REE from a hyperacid brine to secondary minerals precipitated in a volcanic hydrothermal system: Kawah Ijen crater lake (Java, Indonesia)

Apollaro C.;De Rosa R.;
2020

Abstract

Rare Earth Elements (REE; lanthanides and yttrium) are elements with high economic interest because they are critical elements for modern technologies. This study mainly focuses on the geochemical behavior of REE in hyperacid sulphate brines in volcanic-hydrothermal systems, where the precipitation of sulphate minerals occurs. Kawah Ijen lake, a hyperacid brine hosted in the Ijen caldera (Indonesia), was used as natural laboratory. ∑REE concentration in the lake water is high, ranging from 5.86 to 6.52 mg kg−1. The REE pattern of lake waters normalized to the average local volcanic rock is flat, suggesting isochemical dissolution. Minerals spontaneously precipitated in laboratory at 25 °C from water samples of Kawah Ijen were identified by XRD as gypsum. Microprobe analyses and the chemical composition of major constituents allow to identify possible other minerals precipitated: jarosite, Al-sulphate and Sr, Ba-sulphate. ∑REE concentration in minerals precipitated (mainly gypsum) range from 59.53 to 78.64 mg kg−1. The REE patterns of minerals precipitated normalized to the average local magmatic rock show enrichment in LREE. The REE distribution coefficient (KD), obtained from a ratio of its concentration in the minerals precipitated (mainly gypsum) and the lake water, shows higher values for LREE than HREE. KD-LREE/KD-HREE increases in the studied samples when the concentrations of BaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, Na2O and the sum of total oxides (except SO3 and CaO) decrease in the solid phase. The presence of secondary minerals different than gypsum can be the cause of the distribution coefficient variations. High concentrations of REE in Kawah Ijen volcanic lake have to enhance the interest on these environments as possible REE reservoir, stimulating future investigations. The comparison of the KD calculated for REE after mineral precipitation (mainly gypsum) from Kawah Ijen and Poás hyperacid volcanic lakes allow to generalize that the gypsum precipitation removes the LREE from water.
Gypsum precipitation
Hyperacid crater lake
Kawah Ijen volcano
Poás volcano
Rare Earth Elements
REE fractionation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/305222
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