The human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of trillions of microorganisms that inhabit symbiotically on and in the human intestine. They carry out, through the production of a series of metabolites, many important metabolic functions that complement the activity of mammalian enzymes and play an essential role in host digestion. Interindividual variability of microbiota structure, and consequently of the expression of its genes (microbiome), was largely ascribed to the nutritional regime. Diet influences microbiota composition and function with short-and long-term effects. In spite of the vast literature, molecular mechanisms underlying these effects still remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the current evidence on the role exerted by gut microbiota and, more specifically, by its metabolites in the establishment of the host epigenome. The interest in this topic stems from the fact that, by modulating DNA methylation and histone modifications, the gut microbiota does affect the cell activities of the hosting organism.

Gut microbiota as important mediator between diet and DNA methylation and histone modifications in the host

D'Aquila P.;De Rango F.;Passarino G.;Bellizzi D.
2020

Abstract

The human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of trillions of microorganisms that inhabit symbiotically on and in the human intestine. They carry out, through the production of a series of metabolites, many important metabolic functions that complement the activity of mammalian enzymes and play an essential role in host digestion. Interindividual variability of microbiota structure, and consequently of the expression of its genes (microbiome), was largely ascribed to the nutritional regime. Diet influences microbiota composition and function with short-and long-term effects. In spite of the vast literature, molecular mechanisms underlying these effects still remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the current evidence on the role exerted by gut microbiota and, more specifically, by its metabolites in the establishment of the host epigenome. The interest in this topic stems from the fact that, by modulating DNA methylation and histone modifications, the gut microbiota does affect the cell activities of the hosting organism.
Diet
DNA methylation
Gut microbiota
Histone modification
Host epigenome
Microbiome
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/306415
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