Metamaterials exhibit properties beyond those exhibited by conventional materials in conventional scenarios. These have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally at length. In many cases the underpinning physical understanding of metamaterials has greatly preceded our ability to manufacture constituent structures. However, the development of additive manufacturing techniques gives new possibilities for the fabrication of complex metamaterial structures, many of which cannot be realised through conventional fabrication methods. The literature to date contains contributions from a diverse group of researchers from the physical sciences, mathematics, and manufacturing technology in the creation of metamaterials for electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical applications. It is proposed that additive manufacturing holds the key to realise the capabilities of this vibrant research community and permit the creation of new paradigms in fundamental structures but also exploitation through application. For this purpose, a literature review is presented which identifies key advances in metamaterials alongside additive manufacturing and proposes new opportunities for researchers to work together through intra/inter disciplinary research to realise structures which exhibit extraordinary behaviour(s). This review represents a comprehensive account of the state-of-the-art in the production of such metamaterials using additive manufacturing methods and highlights areas, which, based on trends observed in the literature, are worthy of further research and require a coordinated effort on behalf of the afore mentioned disciplines in order to advance the state-of-the-art.
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