Artificial intelligence (AI) is a major branch of computer science that is fruitfully used for analyzing complex medical data and extracting meaningful relationships in datasets, for several clinical aims. Specifically, in the brain care domain, several innovative approaches have achieved remarkable results and open new perspectives in terms of diagnosis, planning, and outcome prediction. In this work, we present an overview of different artificial intelligent techniques used in the brain care domain, along with a review of important clinical applications. A systematic and careful literature search in major databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out using "artificial intelligence"and "brain"as main keywords. Further references were integrated by cross-referencing from key articles. 155 studies out of 2696 were identified, which actually made use of AI algorithms for different purposes (diagnosis, surgical treatment, intra-operative assistance, and postoperative assessment). Artificial neural networks have risen to prominent positions among the most widely used analytical tools. Classic machine learning approaches such as support vector machine and random forest are still widely used. Task-specific algorithms are designed for solving specific problems. Brain images are one of the most used data types. AI has the possibility to improve clinicians' decision-making ability in neuroscience applications. However, major issues still need to be addressed for a better practical use of AI in the brain. To this aim, it is important to both gather comprehensive data and build explainable AI algorithms.

Artificial intelligence for brain diseases: A systematic review

Marzullo A.;Calimeri F.;
2020

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a major branch of computer science that is fruitfully used for analyzing complex medical data and extracting meaningful relationships in datasets, for several clinical aims. Specifically, in the brain care domain, several innovative approaches have achieved remarkable results and open new perspectives in terms of diagnosis, planning, and outcome prediction. In this work, we present an overview of different artificial intelligent techniques used in the brain care domain, along with a review of important clinical applications. A systematic and careful literature search in major databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out using "artificial intelligence"and "brain"as main keywords. Further references were integrated by cross-referencing from key articles. 155 studies out of 2696 were identified, which actually made use of AI algorithms for different purposes (diagnosis, surgical treatment, intra-operative assistance, and postoperative assessment). Artificial neural networks have risen to prominent positions among the most widely used analytical tools. Classic machine learning approaches such as support vector machine and random forest are still widely used. Task-specific algorithms are designed for solving specific problems. Brain images are one of the most used data types. AI has the possibility to improve clinicians' decision-making ability in neuroscience applications. However, major issues still need to be addressed for a better practical use of AI in the brain. To this aim, it is important to both gather comprehensive data and build explainable AI algorithms.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/309318
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 24
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 19
social impact