Cancer cells perform a metabolic rewiring to sustain an increased growth rate and compensate for the redox stress caused by augmented energy metabolism. The metabolic changes are not the same in all cancers. Some features, however, are considered hallmarks of this disease. As an example, all cancer cells rewire the amino acid metabolism for fulfilling both the energy demand and the changed signaling routes. In these altered conditions, some amino acids are more frequently used than others. In any case, the prerequisite for amino acid utilization is the presence of specific transporters in the cell membrane that can guarantee the absorption and the traffic of amino acids among tissues. Tumor cells preferentially use some of these transporters for satisfying their needs. The evidence for this phenomenon is the over-expression of selected transporters, associated with specific cancer types. The knowledge of the link between the over-expression and the metabolic rewiring is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanism of reprogramming in cancer cells. The continuous growth of information on structure-function relationships and the regulation of transporters will open novel perspectives in the fight against human cancers.

Membrane Transporters for Amino Acids as Players of Cancer Metabolic Rewiring

Scalise M.;Console L.;Rovella F.;Galluccio M.;Pochini L.;Indiveri C.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Cancer cells perform a metabolic rewiring to sustain an increased growth rate and compensate for the redox stress caused by augmented energy metabolism. The metabolic changes are not the same in all cancers. Some features, however, are considered hallmarks of this disease. As an example, all cancer cells rewire the amino acid metabolism for fulfilling both the energy demand and the changed signaling routes. In these altered conditions, some amino acids are more frequently used than others. In any case, the prerequisite for amino acid utilization is the presence of specific transporters in the cell membrane that can guarantee the absorption and the traffic of amino acids among tissues. Tumor cells preferentially use some of these transporters for satisfying their needs. The evidence for this phenomenon is the over-expression of selected transporters, associated with specific cancer types. The knowledge of the link between the over-expression and the metabolic rewiring is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanism of reprogramming in cancer cells. The continuous growth of information on structure-function relationships and the regulation of transporters will open novel perspectives in the fight against human cancers.
2020
amino acids
metabolism
transporters
tumors
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/310406
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