Renal proximal tubular cells are high energy-demanding cells mainly relying on fatty acid oxidation. In stress conditions, such as transient hypoxia, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) decreases and carbohydrate catabolism fails to compensate for the energy demand. In this scenario, the surviving tubular cells exhibit the peculiar phenotype associated with fibrosis that is the histological manifestation of a process culminating in chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that, together with inflammation, FAO is the top dysregulated pathway in kidney diseases with a decreased expression of key FAO enzymes and regulators. Another evidence that links the derangement of FAO to fibrosis is the progressive decrease of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in aged people, that triggers the age-associated renal fibrosis. To allow FAO completion, a coordinate network of enzymes and transport proteins is required. Indeed, the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to fatty acyl-CoAs and a specialized system, well known as carnitine shuttle, is needed for translocating fatty acids moieties, conjugated with carnitine, into mitochondrial matrix for the β-oxidation. The first component of this system is the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) responsible for transfer acyl moieties to carnitine. Several studies indicated that the stimulation of CPT1 activity and expression has a protective effect against renal fibrosis. Therefore, the network of enzymes and transporters linked to FAO may represent potential pharmacological targets deserving further attention in the development of new drugs to attenuate renal dysfunction.

The Link Between the Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation Derangement and Kidney Injury

Console L.;Scalise M.;Indiveri C.
2020

Abstract

Renal proximal tubular cells are high energy-demanding cells mainly relying on fatty acid oxidation. In stress conditions, such as transient hypoxia, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) decreases and carbohydrate catabolism fails to compensate for the energy demand. In this scenario, the surviving tubular cells exhibit the peculiar phenotype associated with fibrosis that is the histological manifestation of a process culminating in chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that, together with inflammation, FAO is the top dysregulated pathway in kidney diseases with a decreased expression of key FAO enzymes and regulators. Another evidence that links the derangement of FAO to fibrosis is the progressive decrease of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in aged people, that triggers the age-associated renal fibrosis. To allow FAO completion, a coordinate network of enzymes and transport proteins is required. Indeed, the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to fatty acyl-CoAs and a specialized system, well known as carnitine shuttle, is needed for translocating fatty acids moieties, conjugated with carnitine, into mitochondrial matrix for the β-oxidation. The first component of this system is the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) responsible for transfer acyl moieties to carnitine. Several studies indicated that the stimulation of CPT1 activity and expression has a protective effect against renal fibrosis. Therefore, the network of enzymes and transporters linked to FAO may represent potential pharmacological targets deserving further attention in the development of new drugs to attenuate renal dysfunction.
carnitine
CPT
kidney
mitochondria
β-oxidation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/310407
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