c-Jun is a major component of the dimeric transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), a paradigm for transcriptional response to extracellular signaling, whose components are basic-Leucine Zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the Jun, Fos, activating transcription factor (ATF), ATF-like (BATF) and Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) gene families. Extracellular signals regulate c-Jun/AP-1 activity at multiple levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of c-Jun expression and transactivity, in turn, establishing the magnitude and the duration of c-Jun/AP-1 activation. Another important level of c-Jun/AP-1 regulation is due to the capability of Jun family members to bind DNA as a heterodimer with every other member of the AP-1 family, and to interact with other classes of transcription factors, thereby acquiring the potential to integrate diverse extrinsic and intrinsic signals into combinatorial regulation of gene expression. Here, we review how these features of c-Jun/AP-1 regulation underlie the multifaceted output of c-Jun biological activity, eliciting quite distinct cellular responses, such as neoplastic transformation, differentiation and apoptosis, in different cell types. In particular, we focus on the current understanding of the role of c-Jun/AP-1 in the response of CD8 T cells to acute infection and cancer. We highlight the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms through which c-Jun/AP-1 participates in the productive immune response of CD8 T cells, and how its downregulation may contribute to the dysfunctional state of tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells. Additionally, we discuss recent insights pointing at c-Jun as a suitable target for immunotherapy-based combination approaches to reinvigorate anti-tumor immune functions.

The Multifaceted Output of c-Jun Biological Activity: Focus at the Junction of CD8 T Cell Activation and Exhaustion

Musti A. M.
2020

Abstract

c-Jun is a major component of the dimeric transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), a paradigm for transcriptional response to extracellular signaling, whose components are basic-Leucine Zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the Jun, Fos, activating transcription factor (ATF), ATF-like (BATF) and Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) gene families. Extracellular signals regulate c-Jun/AP-1 activity at multiple levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of c-Jun expression and transactivity, in turn, establishing the magnitude and the duration of c-Jun/AP-1 activation. Another important level of c-Jun/AP-1 regulation is due to the capability of Jun family members to bind DNA as a heterodimer with every other member of the AP-1 family, and to interact with other classes of transcription factors, thereby acquiring the potential to integrate diverse extrinsic and intrinsic signals into combinatorial regulation of gene expression. Here, we review how these features of c-Jun/AP-1 regulation underlie the multifaceted output of c-Jun biological activity, eliciting quite distinct cellular responses, such as neoplastic transformation, differentiation and apoptosis, in different cell types. In particular, we focus on the current understanding of the role of c-Jun/AP-1 in the response of CD8 T cells to acute infection and cancer. We highlight the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms through which c-Jun/AP-1 participates in the productive immune response of CD8 T cells, and how its downregulation may contribute to the dysfunctional state of tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells. Additionally, we discuss recent insights pointing at c-Jun as a suitable target for immunotherapy-based combination approaches to reinvigorate anti-tumor immune functions.
AP-1
c-Jun
CD8 T cell
differentiation
epigenetic
exhaustion
immunotherapy
transcriptional
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/310644
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