Hypoxia presents a challenge to anticancer therapy, reducing the efficacy of many available treatments. Photodynamic therapy is particularly susceptible to hypoxia, given that its mechanism relies on oxygen. Herein, we introduce two new osmium-based polypyridyl photosensitizers that are active in hypoxia. The lead compounds emerged from a systematic study of two Os(II) polypyridyl families derived from 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) or 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine (dmb) as coligands combined with imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligands tethered to n = 0-4 thiophenes (IP-nT). The compounds were characterized and investigated for their spectroscopic and (photo)biological activities. The two hypoxia-active Os(II) photosensitizers had n = 4 thiophenes, with the bpy analogue 1-4T being the most potent. In normoxia, 1-4T had low nanomolar activity (half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) = 1-13 nM) with phototherapeutic indices (PI) ranging from 5500 to 55â000 with red and visible light, respectively. A sub-micromolar potency was maintained even in hypoxia (1% O2), with light EC50 and PI values of 732-812 nM and 68-76, respectively-currently among the largest PIs for hypoxic photoactivity. This high degree of activity coincided with a low-energy, long-lived (0.98-3.6 μs) mixed-character intraligand charge-transfer (3ILCT)/ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer (3LLCT) state only accessible in quaterthiophene complexes 1-4T and 2-4T. The coligand identity strongly influenced the photophysical and photobiological results in this study, whereby the bpy coligand led to longer lifetimes (3.6 μs) and more potent photo-cytotoxicity relative to those of dmb. The unactivated compounds were relatively nontoxic both in vitro and in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 1-4T and 2-4T in mice was greater than or equal to 200 mg kg-1, an excellent starting point for future in vivo validation.

Os(II) Oligothienyl Complexes as a Hypoxia-Active Photosensitizer Class for Photodynamic Therapy

Russo N.;Alberto M. E.
;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Hypoxia presents a challenge to anticancer therapy, reducing the efficacy of many available treatments. Photodynamic therapy is particularly susceptible to hypoxia, given that its mechanism relies on oxygen. Herein, we introduce two new osmium-based polypyridyl photosensitizers that are active in hypoxia. The lead compounds emerged from a systematic study of two Os(II) polypyridyl families derived from 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) or 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine (dmb) as coligands combined with imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligands tethered to n = 0-4 thiophenes (IP-nT). The compounds were characterized and investigated for their spectroscopic and (photo)biological activities. The two hypoxia-active Os(II) photosensitizers had n = 4 thiophenes, with the bpy analogue 1-4T being the most potent. In normoxia, 1-4T had low nanomolar activity (half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) = 1-13 nM) with phototherapeutic indices (PI) ranging from 5500 to 55â000 with red and visible light, respectively. A sub-micromolar potency was maintained even in hypoxia (1% O2), with light EC50 and PI values of 732-812 nM and 68-76, respectively-currently among the largest PIs for hypoxic photoactivity. This high degree of activity coincided with a low-energy, long-lived (0.98-3.6 μs) mixed-character intraligand charge-transfer (3ILCT)/ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer (3LLCT) state only accessible in quaterthiophene complexes 1-4T and 2-4T. The coligand identity strongly influenced the photophysical and photobiological results in this study, whereby the bpy coligand led to longer lifetimes (3.6 μs) and more potent photo-cytotoxicity relative to those of dmb. The unactivated compounds were relatively nontoxic both in vitro and in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 1-4T and 2-4T in mice was greater than or equal to 200 mg kg-1, an excellent starting point for future in vivo validation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/312370
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