Breast cancer is the most common solid malignancy diagnosed in females worldwide, and approximately 70% of these tumors express estrogen receptor (ER), the main biomarker of endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, despite the use of long-term anti-hormone adjuvant treatment, which has significantly reduced patient mortality, resistance to the endocrine treatments often develops, leading to disease recurrence and limiting clinical benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanosized particles that are released by all cell types and responsible for local and systemic intercellular communications, might represent a newly identified mechanism underlying endocrine resistance. Unraveling the role of EVs, released by transformed cells during the tumor evolution under endocrine therapy, is still an open question in the cancer research area and the molecular mechanisms involved should be better defined to discover alternative therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance. In this review, we will provide an overview of recent findings on the involvement of EVs in sustaining hormonal resistance in breast cancer and discuss opportunities for their potential use as biomarkers to monitor the therapeutic response and disease progression.
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