river networks, multifractal measures, fixed-mass algorithm, parallel algorithms
The possibility to create a flood wave in a river network depends on the geometric properties of the river basin. Among the models that try to forecast the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) of rainfall precipitation, the so-called Multifractal Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (MIUH) rather successfully connects the multifractal properties of the river basin to the observed IUH. Such properties can be assessed through different types of analysis (fixed-size algorithm, correlation integral, fixed-mass algorithm, sandbox algorithm, and so on). The fixed-mass algorithm is the one that produces the most precise estimate of the properties of the multifractal spectrum that are relevant for the MIUH model. However, a disadvantage of this method is that it requires very long computational times to produce the best possible results. In a previous work, we proposed a parallel version of the fixed-mass algorithm, which drastically reduced the computational times almost proportionally to the number of Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores available on the computational machine by using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), which is a standard for distributed memory clusters. In the present work, we further improved the code in order to include the use of the Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) paradigm to facilitate the execution and improve the computational speed-up on single processor, multi-core workstations, which are much more common than multi-node clusters. Moreover, the assessment of the multifractal spectrum has also been improved through a direct computation method. Currently, to the best of our knowledge, this code represents the state-of-the-art for a fast evaluation of the multifractal properties of a river basin, and it opens up a new scenario for an effective flood forecast in reasonable computational times.