In this work, a sample of pure and certified bergamot essential oil (BEO) was extensively studied for the first time directly by NMR spectroscopy with the aim of investigating its metabolic composition, quantifying the main components of this complex natural matrix and simultaneously assessing whether the NMR technique is able to highlight possible frauds to which this high-cost product may be subjected. Eleven low molecular weight compounds have been identified by using 1D 1H and 13C-{1H} NMR experiments, 2D homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR spectra, and 2D 1H DOSY experiments; the most abundant of them, i.e., about 90% of the sample analyzed, has been quantified by employing benzoic acid as an internal standard by 1H NMR spectrum. Moreover, since the commercial fraud of this precious oil is often due to the addition of less expensive oils, we have simulated a possible adulteration through the preparation of BEO samples to which different percentages of orange essential oil (OEO) were added. The results, obtained by combining the 1H NMR spectra collected on the adulterated samples and on pure BEO, with chemometric analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), indicate that it is possible to distinguish the sample of pure BEO from the adulterated ones and also, among them, to differentiate between the degrees of adulteration. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Metabolic composition and authenticity evaluation of bergamot essential oil assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Salvino R. A.;De Filpo G.;Celebre G.;De Luca G.
2022-01-01

Abstract

In this work, a sample of pure and certified bergamot essential oil (BEO) was extensively studied for the first time directly by NMR spectroscopy with the aim of investigating its metabolic composition, quantifying the main components of this complex natural matrix and simultaneously assessing whether the NMR technique is able to highlight possible frauds to which this high-cost product may be subjected. Eleven low molecular weight compounds have been identified by using 1D 1H and 13C-{1H} NMR experiments, 2D homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR spectra, and 2D 1H DOSY experiments; the most abundant of them, i.e., about 90% of the sample analyzed, has been quantified by employing benzoic acid as an internal standard by 1H NMR spectrum. Moreover, since the commercial fraud of this precious oil is often due to the addition of less expensive oils, we have simulated a possible adulteration through the preparation of BEO samples to which different percentages of orange essential oil (OEO) were added. The results, obtained by combining the 1H NMR spectra collected on the adulterated samples and on pure BEO, with chemometric analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), indicate that it is possible to distinguish the sample of pure BEO from the adulterated ones and also, among them, to differentiate between the degrees of adulteration. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
2022
Adulteration simulation
Fraud detection
Metabolic profile
NMR spectroscopy
Statistical analysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/328408
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