It is known that estrogen stimulates growth and inhibits apoptosis through estrogen receptor(ER)‐mediated mechanisms in many cancer cell types. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that estrogens can also induce apoptosis, activating different ER isoforms in cancer cells. It has been observed that E2/ERα complex activates multiple pathways involved in both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cascade prevention, while E2/ERβ complex in many cases directs the cells to apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism of estrogen‐induced tumor regression is not completely known. Nevertheless, ERs expression levels of specific splice variants and their cellular localization differentially affect outcome of estrogen‐dependent tumors. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on ERs‐mediated apoptosis that occurs in main hormone dependent‐cancers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of ER‐mediated cell death will be useful for the development of specific ligands capable of triggering apoptosis to counteract estrogen‐dependent tumor growth.

Estrogen Receptors‐Mediated Apoptosis in Hormone‐Dependent Cancers

Chimento A.
;
De Luca A.;Avena P.;De Amicis F.;Casaburi I.;Sirianni R.;Pezzi V.
2022-01-01

Abstract

It is known that estrogen stimulates growth and inhibits apoptosis through estrogen receptor(ER)‐mediated mechanisms in many cancer cell types. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that estrogens can also induce apoptosis, activating different ER isoforms in cancer cells. It has been observed that E2/ERα complex activates multiple pathways involved in both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cascade prevention, while E2/ERβ complex in many cases directs the cells to apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism of estrogen‐induced tumor regression is not completely known. Nevertheless, ERs expression levels of specific splice variants and their cellular localization differentially affect outcome of estrogen‐dependent tumors. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on ERs‐mediated apoptosis that occurs in main hormone dependent‐cancers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of ER‐mediated cell death will be useful for the development of specific ligands capable of triggering apoptosis to counteract estrogen‐dependent tumor growth.
2022
Apoptosis
Cancer cells
Estrogen receptors
Estrogens
Intrinsic/extrinsic apoptotic pathways
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/329733
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