Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) belonging to the Cactacea family has many nutritional benefits attributed to a wide variety of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Coumaric acid (COA), ferulic acid (FLA), protocatechuic acid (PRA), and gallic acid (GAA) are the phenolic acids (PhAs) present in nopal. In this study, the role of these PhAs in copper-induced oxidative stress was investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). The PhAs form 5 thermodynamically favorable complexes with Cu(II), their conditional Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔG', at pH = 7.4, in kcal/mol) are from -23 kcal/mol to -18 kcal/mol. All of them are bi-dentate complexes. The complexes of PRA and GAA are capable of inhibiting the Cu(II) reduction by both O2•- and Asc-, their reactions with the chelated metal are endergonic having rate constants about ~10-5-102 M-1 s-1, PhAs can prevent the formation of hydroxyl free radicals by chelating the copper ions. Once the hydroxyl radicals are formed by Fenton reactions, the complexes of PhAs with Cu(II) can immediately react with them, thus inhibiting the damage that they can cause to molecules of biological interest. The reactions between PhAs-Cu(II) complexes and hydroxyl free radical were estimated to be diffusion-limited (~108 M-1s-1). Thus, these chelates can reduce the harmful effects caused by the most reactive free radical existent immediately after it is formed by Fenton reactions.

Antioxidants into Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica), Important Inhibitors of Free Radicals’ Formation

Tiziana Marino
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Nino Russo;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) belonging to the Cactacea family has many nutritional benefits attributed to a wide variety of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Coumaric acid (COA), ferulic acid (FLA), protocatechuic acid (PRA), and gallic acid (GAA) are the phenolic acids (PhAs) present in nopal. In this study, the role of these PhAs in copper-induced oxidative stress was investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). The PhAs form 5 thermodynamically favorable complexes with Cu(II), their conditional Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔG', at pH = 7.4, in kcal/mol) are from -23 kcal/mol to -18 kcal/mol. All of them are bi-dentate complexes. The complexes of PRA and GAA are capable of inhibiting the Cu(II) reduction by both O2•- and Asc-, their reactions with the chelated metal are endergonic having rate constants about ~10-5-102 M-1 s-1, PhAs can prevent the formation of hydroxyl free radicals by chelating the copper ions. Once the hydroxyl radicals are formed by Fenton reactions, the complexes of PhAs with Cu(II) can immediately react with them, thus inhibiting the damage that they can cause to molecules of biological interest. The reactions between PhAs-Cu(II) complexes and hydroxyl free radical were estimated to be diffusion-limited (~108 M-1s-1). Thus, these chelates can reduce the harmful effects caused by the most reactive free radical existent immediately after it is formed by Fenton reactions.
2021
DFT
fenton reactions
natural antioxidants
oxidative stress
phenolic acids in nopal
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/334284
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