Metabolic disorders are associated with increased incidence, aggressive phenotype and poor outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients. For instance, hyperinsulinemia is an independent risk factor for BC and the insulin/insulin receptor (IR) axis is involved in BC growth and metastasis. Of note, the anti-diabetic metformin may be considered in comprehensive therapeutic approaches in BC on the basis of its antiproliferative effects obtained in diverse pre-clinical and clinical studies.
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