The Spirulina spp. exhibited an ability to tolerate the organophosphates. This study aimed to explore the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on a selected strain of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira maxima cultivated in a company. Experimental cultivations acclimated in aquaria were treated with 0.2 mM glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine]. The culture biomass, the phycocyanin, and the chlorophyll a concentrations were evaluated every week during 42 days of treatment. The differentially expressed proteins in the treated cyanobacteria versus the control cultivations were evaluated weekly during 21 days of treatment. Even if the glyphosate treatment negatively affected the biomass and the photosynthetic pigments, it induced resistance in the survival A. maxima population. Proteins belonging to the response to osmotic stress and methylation pathways were strongly accumulated in treated cultivation; the response to toxic substances and the negative regulation of transcription seemed to have a role in the resistance. The glyphosate-affected enzyme, chorismate synthase, a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, was accumulated during treatment, suggesting that the surviving strain of A. maxima expressed a glyphosate-resistant target enzyme.
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