The widespread use of herbicides has increased concern about the hazards and risks to animals living in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A comprehensive understanding of their effective action at different levels of biological organization is critical for establishing guidelines to protect ecosystems and human health. Dinitroanilines are broad-spectrum pre-emergence herbicides currently used for weed control in the conventional agriculture. They are considered extremely safe agrochemicals because they act specifically on tubulin proteins and inhibit shoot and root growth of plants. However, there is a lack of toxicity information regarding the potential risk of exposure to non-target organisms. The aim of the present review is to focus on side effects of the most commonly used active ingredients, e.g. pendimethalin, oryzalin, trifluralin and benfluralin, on animal non-target cells of invertebrates and vertebrates. Acute toxicity varies from slightly to high in terrestrial and aquatic species (i.e. nematodes, earthworms, snails, insects, crustaceans, fish and mammals) depending on the species-specific ability of tested organisms to adsorb and discharge toxicants. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and activation of oxidative stress pathways as well as alterations of physiological, metabolic, morphological, developmental and behavioural traits, reviewed here, indicate that exposure to sublethal concentrations of active ingredients poses a clear hazard to animals and humans. Further research is required to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of action of these herbicides in the animal cell and on biological functions at multiple levels, from organisms to communities, including the effects of commercial formulations.

Dinitroaniline herbicides: a comprehensive review of toxicity and side effects on animal non-target organisms

Giglio, Anita
;
Vommaro, Maria Luigia
2022-01-01

Abstract

The widespread use of herbicides has increased concern about the hazards and risks to animals living in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A comprehensive understanding of their effective action at different levels of biological organization is critical for establishing guidelines to protect ecosystems and human health. Dinitroanilines are broad-spectrum pre-emergence herbicides currently used for weed control in the conventional agriculture. They are considered extremely safe agrochemicals because they act specifically on tubulin proteins and inhibit shoot and root growth of plants. However, there is a lack of toxicity information regarding the potential risk of exposure to non-target organisms. The aim of the present review is to focus on side effects of the most commonly used active ingredients, e.g. pendimethalin, oryzalin, trifluralin and benfluralin, on animal non-target cells of invertebrates and vertebrates. Acute toxicity varies from slightly to high in terrestrial and aquatic species (i.e. nematodes, earthworms, snails, insects, crustaceans, fish and mammals) depending on the species-specific ability of tested organisms to adsorb and discharge toxicants. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and activation of oxidative stress pathways as well as alterations of physiological, metabolic, morphological, developmental and behavioural traits, reviewed here, indicate that exposure to sublethal concentrations of active ingredients poses a clear hazard to animals and humans. Further research is required to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of action of these herbicides in the animal cell and on biological functions at multiple levels, from organisms to communities, including the effects of commercial formulations.
Apoptosis
Carcinogenesis
Ecotoxicology
Endocrine disruption
Histopathology
Microtubules
Pesticides
Survival rate
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/337724
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