We provide here the first karyotype description of eight Uroplatus species and a characterization of their chromosomal diversity. We performed a molecular taxonomic assessment of several Uroplatus samples using the mitochondrial 12S marker and a comparative cytogenetic analysis with standard karyotyping, silver staining (Ag-NOR) and sequential C-banding + Giemsa, +Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), +4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). We found chromosomal variability in terms of chromosome number (2n = 34–38), heterochromatin composition and number and localization of loci or Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) (alternatively on the 2nd, 6th, 10th or 16th pair). Chromosome morphology is almost constant, with karyotypes composed of acrocentric chromosomes, gradually decreasing in length. C-banding evidenced a general low content of heterochromatin, mostly localized on pericentromeric and telomeric regions. Centromeric bands varied among the species studied, resulting in CMA3 positive and DAPI negative or positive to both fluorochromes. We also provide evidence of a first putative heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the genus. In fact, in U. alluaudi the 10th pair was highly heteromorphic, with a metacentric, largely heterochromatic W chromosome, which was much bigger than the Z. We propose an evolutionary scenario of chromosome reduction from 2n = 38 to 2n = 34, by means of translocations of microchromosomes on larger chromosomes (often involving the NOR-bearing microchromosomes). Adding our data to those available from the literature, we show that similar processes characterized the evolutionary radiation of a larger gecko clade. Finally, we hypothesize that sex chromosome diversification occurred independently in different genera.

First Insights on the Karyotype Diversification of the Endemic Malagasy Leaf-Toed Geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Uroplatus)

Brunelli E.;
2022

Abstract

We provide here the first karyotype description of eight Uroplatus species and a characterization of their chromosomal diversity. We performed a molecular taxonomic assessment of several Uroplatus samples using the mitochondrial 12S marker and a comparative cytogenetic analysis with standard karyotyping, silver staining (Ag-NOR) and sequential C-banding + Giemsa, +Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), +4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). We found chromosomal variability in terms of chromosome number (2n = 34–38), heterochromatin composition and number and localization of loci or Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) (alternatively on the 2nd, 6th, 10th or 16th pair). Chromosome morphology is almost constant, with karyotypes composed of acrocentric chromosomes, gradually decreasing in length. C-banding evidenced a general low content of heterochromatin, mostly localized on pericentromeric and telomeric regions. Centromeric bands varied among the species studied, resulting in CMA3 positive and DAPI negative or positive to both fluorochromes. We also provide evidence of a first putative heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the genus. In fact, in U. alluaudi the 10th pair was highly heteromorphic, with a metacentric, largely heterochromatic W chromosome, which was much bigger than the Z. We propose an evolutionary scenario of chromosome reduction from 2n = 38 to 2n = 34, by means of translocations of microchromosomes on larger chromosomes (often involving the NOR-bearing microchromosomes). Adding our data to those available from the literature, we show that similar processes characterized the evolutionary radiation of a larger gecko clade. Finally, we hypothesize that sex chromosome diversification occurred independently in different genera.
evolution
karyotype
Madagascar
NORs
reptiles
sex chromosomes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/337845
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