Mitochondrial Ca2+ ions are crucial regulators of bioenergetics and cell death pathways. Mitochondrial Ca2+ content and cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis strictly depend on Ca2+ transporters. In recent decades, the major players responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release have been identified, except the mitochondrial Ca2+ /H+ exchanger (CHE). Originally identified as the mitochondrial K+ /H+ exchanger, LETM1 was also considered as a candidate for the mitochondrial CHE. Defining the mitochondrial interactome of LETM1, we identify TMBIM5/MICS1, the only mitochondrial member of the TMBIM family, and validate the physical interaction of TMBIM5 and LETM1. Cell-based and cell-free biochemical assays demonstrate the absence or greatly reduced Na+ -independent mitochondrial Ca2+ release in TMBIM5 knockout or pH-sensing site mutants, respectively, and pH-dependent Ca2+ transport by recombinant TMBIM5. Taken together, we demonstrate that TMBIM5, but not LETM1, is the long-sought mitochondrial CHE, involved in setting and regulating the mitochondrial proton gradient. This finding provides the final piece of the puzzle of mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters and opens the door to exploring its importance in health and disease, and to developing drugs modulating Ca2+ exchange.

TMBIM5 is the Ca2+ /H+ antiporter of mammalian mitochondria

Scalise, Mariafrancesca;Galluccio, Michele;Indiveri, Cesare;
2022

Abstract

Mitochondrial Ca2+ ions are crucial regulators of bioenergetics and cell death pathways. Mitochondrial Ca2+ content and cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis strictly depend on Ca2+ transporters. In recent decades, the major players responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release have been identified, except the mitochondrial Ca2+ /H+ exchanger (CHE). Originally identified as the mitochondrial K+ /H+ exchanger, LETM1 was also considered as a candidate for the mitochondrial CHE. Defining the mitochondrial interactome of LETM1, we identify TMBIM5/MICS1, the only mitochondrial member of the TMBIM family, and validate the physical interaction of TMBIM5 and LETM1. Cell-based and cell-free biochemical assays demonstrate the absence or greatly reduced Na+ -independent mitochondrial Ca2+ release in TMBIM5 knockout or pH-sensing site mutants, respectively, and pH-dependent Ca2+ transport by recombinant TMBIM5. Taken together, we demonstrate that TMBIM5, but not LETM1, is the long-sought mitochondrial CHE, involved in setting and regulating the mitochondrial proton gradient. This finding provides the final piece of the puzzle of mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters and opens the door to exploring its importance in health and disease, and to developing drugs modulating Ca2+ exchange.
TMBIM5 (MICS1)
mitochondrial Ca2+-H+ exchanger
mitochondrial metabolism
permeability transition pore
LETM1
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/339024
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