This study investigates whether and how pairing two firms with the same priority – either a customer or a selling orientation – affects the two sides of the dyad's ability to ensure firm-level outcomes from Relationship-Specific Investments (RSIs). We find that pairing firms with a customer orientation positively moderates the effects of RSIs on the firm’s performance of both the buyer and the seller. Conversely, pairing firms with a selling orientation has negative influence on RSIs effects, but only for the seller's performance. We discuss this study's contributions to the body of research on RSIs and strategic orientations and, specifically, to literature that focuses on the joint effect of strategic orientations across firms. Additionally, we highlight the implications of our findings for research on inter-organizational relationship development and, particularly, for the task-contingent interpretation of the homophily effect.
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