The production of electricity from photovoltaic panels has experienced significant developments. To manage the energy flows introduced into the electricity grid, it is necessary to estimate the productivity of PV panels under the climatic conditions. In this study, a photovoltaic panel is modelled from thermal and electrical points of view to evaluate electrical performance and identify the temperature distribution in the layers. The analysis performed is time dependent and the problem is solved using the finite difference technique. A methodology is introduced to estimate the cloudiness of the sky, which affects radiative heat exchange. The calculation method is validated using experimental data recorded in a laboratory of the University of Calabria. Temperature and electrical power are predicted with RMSE of 1.5–2.0 °C and NRMSE of 1.2–2.1%, respectively. The evaluation of the temperature profile inside the panel is essential to understand how heat is dissipated. The results show that the top surface (glass) is almost always colder than the back of the panel, despite being exposed to radiation. In addition, the upper surface dissipates more heat power than the lower one. Cooling systems, such as spray cooling, work better if they are installed on the back of the panel.

A Thermal Model to Estimate PV Electrical Power and Temperature Profile along Panel Thickness

Nicoletti F.
;
Cucumo M. A.;Ferraro V.;Kaliakatsos D.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The production of electricity from photovoltaic panels has experienced significant developments. To manage the energy flows introduced into the electricity grid, it is necessary to estimate the productivity of PV panels under the climatic conditions. In this study, a photovoltaic panel is modelled from thermal and electrical points of view to evaluate electrical performance and identify the temperature distribution in the layers. The analysis performed is time dependent and the problem is solved using the finite difference technique. A methodology is introduced to estimate the cloudiness of the sky, which affects radiative heat exchange. The calculation method is validated using experimental data recorded in a laboratory of the University of Calabria. Temperature and electrical power are predicted with RMSE of 1.5–2.0 °C and NRMSE of 1.2–2.1%, respectively. The evaluation of the temperature profile inside the panel is essential to understand how heat is dissipated. The results show that the top surface (glass) is almost always colder than the back of the panel, despite being exposed to radiation. In addition, the upper surface dissipates more heat power than the lower one. Cooling systems, such as spray cooling, work better if they are installed on the back of the panel.
2022
thermal model
PV efficiency
heat dissipation
cloud cover
sky temperature
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/339492
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