Simple Summary The growing interest in immunotherapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma demands a deep knowledge of the complex interactions between malignant and immune cells within the bone marrow. Indeed, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this network should represent the basis for the design of novel patient-oriented biological therapeutic approaches. Here, we describe the role of the main immune components of the myeloma niche along disease evolution and their implication in impairing/improving the response to anti-cancer treatments. Additionally, we provided an overview of the potential weakness of this pro-tumor interplay, evidencing novel therapeutic opportunities, which deserve future clinical investigations. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy, characterized by a multi-step evolutionary path, which starts with an early asymptomatic stage, defined as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) evolving to overt disease in 1% of cases per year, often through an intermediate phase known as "smoldering" MM (sMM). Interestingly, while many genomic alterations (translocation, deletions, mutations) are usually found at early stages, they are not sufficient (alone) to determine disease evolution. The latter, indeed, relies on significant "epigenetic" alterations of different normal cell populations within the bone marrow (BM) niche, including the "evasion" from immune-system control. Additionally, MM cells could "educate" the BM immune microenvironment (BM-IM) towards a pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive phenotype, which ultimately leads to disease evolution, drug resistance, and patients' worse outcome. Indeed, it is not a case that the most important drugs for the treatment of MM include immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide) and monoclonal antibodies (daratumumab, isatuximab, and elotuzumab). On these bases, in this review, we describe the most recent advances in the comprehension of the role of the different cells composing the BM-IM, and we discuss the potential molecular targets, which could represent new opportunities to improve current treatment strategies for MM patients.

Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Multiple Myeloma: Open Questions and Therapeutic Opportunities

Vigna, Ernesto;Morabito, Fortunato;Gentile, Massimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary The growing interest in immunotherapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma demands a deep knowledge of the complex interactions between malignant and immune cells within the bone marrow. Indeed, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this network should represent the basis for the design of novel patient-oriented biological therapeutic approaches. Here, we describe the role of the main immune components of the myeloma niche along disease evolution and their implication in impairing/improving the response to anti-cancer treatments. Additionally, we provided an overview of the potential weakness of this pro-tumor interplay, evidencing novel therapeutic opportunities, which deserve future clinical investigations. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy, characterized by a multi-step evolutionary path, which starts with an early asymptomatic stage, defined as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) evolving to overt disease in 1% of cases per year, often through an intermediate phase known as "smoldering" MM (sMM). Interestingly, while many genomic alterations (translocation, deletions, mutations) are usually found at early stages, they are not sufficient (alone) to determine disease evolution. The latter, indeed, relies on significant "epigenetic" alterations of different normal cell populations within the bone marrow (BM) niche, including the "evasion" from immune-system control. Additionally, MM cells could "educate" the BM immune microenvironment (BM-IM) towards a pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive phenotype, which ultimately leads to disease evolution, drug resistance, and patients' worse outcome. Indeed, it is not a case that the most important drugs for the treatment of MM include immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide) and monoclonal antibodies (daratumumab, isatuximab, and elotuzumab). On these bases, in this review, we describe the most recent advances in the comprehension of the role of the different cells composing the BM-IM, and we discuss the potential molecular targets, which could represent new opportunities to improve current treatment strategies for MM patients.
anti-cancer immune response
immunotherapy
monoclonal antibodies
multiple myeloma
tumor immunology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/342947
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