This work pursues the hydro-geochemical and isotopic characterization of the complex groundwater system of the Gioia Tauro Plain, one of the most important industrialized and agricultural coastal areas of southern Italy. The an-thropic pressure exposes the water resources at risk of depletion and quality degradation making the plain groundwa-ter a system of high scientific and social interest.The plain is characterized by a shallow aquifer, mostly recharged by local rains and a deep aquifer apparently less in-fluenced by local precipitation. Both aquifers are mainly Ca-HCO3 waters except for localized sectors where Na-HCO3, Na-Cl and Ca-SO4 waters are present. In deep aquifer, both prolonged interaction with sedimentary rocks, mainly de-riving from the erosion of crystalline rocks, and direct cation exchange represent the primary factors controlling the formation of Na-HCO3 waters. Mixing processes between these waters and either connate brine and/or deep thermal waters contribute to the formation of isolated high salinity Na-Cl-rich waters. In shallow aquifer, inputs of N-rich sew-age and agriculture-related contaminants, and SOx emissions in proximity of the harbor are responsible of the increasing nitrate and sulphate concentrations, respectively. The Cl/Br and NO3/Cl ratios highlight contamination mainly linked to agricultural activities and contribution of wastewater.Along the northern boundary, the warmest groundwater (Na-Cl[SO4]) were found close to a bend of the main strike -slip fault system, locally favouring the rising of B-and Li-rich deep waters, testifying the influence of geological -structural features on deep water circulation. Despite the high-water demand, a direct marine intrusion is localized in a very restricted area, where we observed an incipient groundwater-seawater mixing (seawater contribution <= 7 %). The qualitative and quantitative conditions of the shallow aquifer still have acceptable levels because of the relatively high recharge inflow. A reliable hydrogeo-chemical conceptual model, able to explain the compositional variability of the studied waters, is proposed.

Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterization of the Gioia Tauro coastal Plain (Calabria - southern Italy): A multidisciplinary approach for a focused management of vulnerable strategic systems

Vespasiano, G;Cianflone, G
;
De Rosa, R;Polemio, M;Vaselli, O;Barca, D;Dominici, R;Apollaro, C
2023-01-01

Abstract

This work pursues the hydro-geochemical and isotopic characterization of the complex groundwater system of the Gioia Tauro Plain, one of the most important industrialized and agricultural coastal areas of southern Italy. The an-thropic pressure exposes the water resources at risk of depletion and quality degradation making the plain groundwa-ter a system of high scientific and social interest.The plain is characterized by a shallow aquifer, mostly recharged by local rains and a deep aquifer apparently less in-fluenced by local precipitation. Both aquifers are mainly Ca-HCO3 waters except for localized sectors where Na-HCO3, Na-Cl and Ca-SO4 waters are present. In deep aquifer, both prolonged interaction with sedimentary rocks, mainly de-riving from the erosion of crystalline rocks, and direct cation exchange represent the primary factors controlling the formation of Na-HCO3 waters. Mixing processes between these waters and either connate brine and/or deep thermal waters contribute to the formation of isolated high salinity Na-Cl-rich waters. In shallow aquifer, inputs of N-rich sew-age and agriculture-related contaminants, and SOx emissions in proximity of the harbor are responsible of the increasing nitrate and sulphate concentrations, respectively. The Cl/Br and NO3/Cl ratios highlight contamination mainly linked to agricultural activities and contribution of wastewater.Along the northern boundary, the warmest groundwater (Na-Cl[SO4]) were found close to a bend of the main strike -slip fault system, locally favouring the rising of B-and Li-rich deep waters, testifying the influence of geological -structural features on deep water circulation. Despite the high-water demand, a direct marine intrusion is localized in a very restricted area, where we observed an incipient groundwater-seawater mixing (seawater contribution <= 7 %). The qualitative and quantitative conditions of the shallow aquifer still have acceptable levels because of the relatively high recharge inflow. A reliable hydrogeo-chemical conceptual model, able to explain the compositional variability of the studied waters, is proposed.
Calabria
Coastal aquifers
Conceptual hydrogeochemical model
Hydrogeochemistry
Southern Italy
Water isotopes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/343078
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