In recent years, the food industry has become increasingly involved in researching vegetable fats and oils with appropriate mechanical properties (ease of transport, processing, and storage) and a specific lipidic composition to ensure healthy products for consumers. The chemical–physical behavior of these matrices depends on their composition in terms of single fatty acids (FA). However, as we demonstrate in this work, these properties, as well as the absorption, digestion and uptake in humans of specific FAs, are also largely determined by their regiosomerism within the TriAcylGlycerols (TAG) moieties (sn-1,2,3 positions). The goal of this work is to study for the first time vegetable fats obtained directly from a sample of natural cocoa butter (CB) through a process that manipulates the distribution of FAs but not their nature. Even if the initial percentage of each FA in the mixture remains the same, CB derivatives seem to show improved chemical–physical features. In order to understand which factors account for their physical and chemical characteristics, and to check whether or not the obtained new matrices could be considered as valid alternatives to other vegetable fats (e.g., palm oil (PO)), we carried out an experimental investigation at both the macroscopic and molecular level including: (i) Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses to examine thermal features; (ii) rheological testing to explore mechanical properties; (iii) powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to evaluate the solid-state phases of the obtained fats; and (iv) 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, 1D and 2D) spectroscopy to rapidly analyze fatty acid composition including regioisomeric distribution on the glycerol backbone. These last results open up the possibility of using NMR spectroscopy as an alternative to the chromatographic techniques routinely employed for the investigation of similar matrices.

Triacylglycerol Composition and Chemical-Physical Properties of Cocoa Butter and Its Derivatives: NMR, DSC, X-ray, Rheological Investigation

Colella, Maria Francesca;Marino, Nadia;Oliviero Rossi, Cesare;Seta, Lucia;Caputo, Paolino
;
De Luca, Giuseppina
2023-01-01

Abstract

In recent years, the food industry has become increasingly involved in researching vegetable fats and oils with appropriate mechanical properties (ease of transport, processing, and storage) and a specific lipidic composition to ensure healthy products for consumers. The chemical–physical behavior of these matrices depends on their composition in terms of single fatty acids (FA). However, as we demonstrate in this work, these properties, as well as the absorption, digestion and uptake in humans of specific FAs, are also largely determined by their regiosomerism within the TriAcylGlycerols (TAG) moieties (sn-1,2,3 positions). The goal of this work is to study for the first time vegetable fats obtained directly from a sample of natural cocoa butter (CB) through a process that manipulates the distribution of FAs but not their nature. Even if the initial percentage of each FA in the mixture remains the same, CB derivatives seem to show improved chemical–physical features. In order to understand which factors account for their physical and chemical characteristics, and to check whether or not the obtained new matrices could be considered as valid alternatives to other vegetable fats (e.g., palm oil (PO)), we carried out an experimental investigation at both the macroscopic and molecular level including: (i) Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses to examine thermal features; (ii) rheological testing to explore mechanical properties; (iii) powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to evaluate the solid-state phases of the obtained fats; and (iv) 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, 1D and 2D) spectroscopy to rapidly analyze fatty acid composition including regioisomeric distribution on the glycerol backbone. These last results open up the possibility of using NMR spectroscopy as an alternative to the chromatographic techniques routinely employed for the investigation of similar matrices.
cocoa butter (CB); cocoa butter derivatives; Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC); NMR spectroscopy; rheology; powder X-ray (PXRD)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/343104
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