Mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) is a member of the mitochondrial carrier (MC) family and imports acylcarnitine into the mitochondrial matrix in exchange for carnitine, playing a pivotal role in carnitine shuttle, crucial for fatty acid oxidation. The crystallized structure of CAC has not been solved yet, however, the availability of several in vitro/in silico studies, also based on the crystallized structures of the ADP/ATP carrier in the cytosolic-conformation and in the matrix-conformation, has made possible to confirm the hypothesis of the single-binding centered-gated pore mechanism for all the members of the MC family. In addition, our recent bioinformatics analyses allowed quantifying in silico the importance of protein residues of MC substrate binding region, of those involved in the formation of the matrix and cytosolic gates, and of those belonging to the Pro/Gly (PG) levels, proposed to be crucial for the tilting/kinking/bending of the six MC transmembrane helices, funneling the substrate translocation pathway. Here we present a combined in silico/in vitro analysis employed for investigating the role played by a group of 6 proline residues and 6 glycine residues, highly conserved in CAC, belonging to MC PG-levels. Residues of the PG-levels surround the similarly located MC common substrate binding region, and were proposed to lead conformational changes and substrate translocation, following substrate binding. For our analysis, we employed 3D molecular modeling approaches, alanine scanning site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro transport assays. Our analysis reveals that P130 (H3), G268 (H6) and G220 (H5), mutated in alanine, affect severely CAC transport activity (mutant catalytic efficiency lower than 5 % compared to the wild type CAC), most likely due to their major role in triggering CAC conformational changes, following carnitine binding. Notably, P30A (H1) and G121A (H3) CAC mutants, increase the carnitine uptake up to 217 % and 112 %, respectively, compared to the wild type CAC.

Proline/Glycine residues of the PG-levels guide conformational changes along the transport cycle in the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (SLC25A20)

Indiveri C.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) is a member of the mitochondrial carrier (MC) family and imports acylcarnitine into the mitochondrial matrix in exchange for carnitine, playing a pivotal role in carnitine shuttle, crucial for fatty acid oxidation. The crystallized structure of CAC has not been solved yet, however, the availability of several in vitro/in silico studies, also based on the crystallized structures of the ADP/ATP carrier in the cytosolic-conformation and in the matrix-conformation, has made possible to confirm the hypothesis of the single-binding centered-gated pore mechanism for all the members of the MC family. In addition, our recent bioinformatics analyses allowed quantifying in silico the importance of protein residues of MC substrate binding region, of those involved in the formation of the matrix and cytosolic gates, and of those belonging to the Pro/Gly (PG) levels, proposed to be crucial for the tilting/kinking/bending of the six MC transmembrane helices, funneling the substrate translocation pathway. Here we present a combined in silico/in vitro analysis employed for investigating the role played by a group of 6 proline residues and 6 glycine residues, highly conserved in CAC, belonging to MC PG-levels. Residues of the PG-levels surround the similarly located MC common substrate binding region, and were proposed to lead conformational changes and substrate translocation, following substrate binding. For our analysis, we employed 3D molecular modeling approaches, alanine scanning site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro transport assays. Our analysis reveals that P130 (H3), G268 (H6) and G220 (H5), mutated in alanine, affect severely CAC transport activity (mutant catalytic efficiency lower than 5 % compared to the wild type CAC), most likely due to their major role in triggering CAC conformational changes, following carnitine binding. Notably, P30A (H1) and G121A (H3) CAC mutants, increase the carnitine uptake up to 217 % and 112 %, respectively, compared to the wild type CAC.
Bacterial expression
C-conformation
C-state
Carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier
Conformational changes
Intermediate state
M-conformation
M-state
Mitochondrial carriers
PG-levels
Proline and glycine residues
Proteoliposomes reconstitution
Site-directed mutagenesis
Transport cycle
Transport proteins
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/343175
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