: Iron overload is a pathological condition resulting from a congenital impairment of its regulation, increased intestinal iron absorption secondary to bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, or a chronic transfusional regimen. In normal conditions, intracellular and systemic mechanisms contribute to maintaining iron balance. When this complex homeostatic mechanism fails, an iron overload could be present. Detecting an iron overload is not easy. The gold standard remains the liver biopsy, even if it is invasive and dangerous. Identifying iron using noninvasive techniques allowed a better understanding of the rate of iron overload in different organs, with a low risk for the patient. Estimating serum ferritin (mg/L) is the easiest and, consequently, the most employed diagnostic tool for assessing body iron stores, even if it could be a not specific method. The most common hematological causes of iron overload are myelodysplastic syndromes, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. In all of these conditions, three drugs have been approved for the treatment of iron overload: deferiprone, deferoxamine, and deferasirox. These chelators have been demonstrated to help lower tissue iron levels and prevent iron overload complications, improving event-free survival (EFS). Nowadays, the decision to start chelation and which chelator to choose remains the joint decision of the clinician and patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Iron chelation therapy

Morabito, Fortunato;Gentile, Massimo;Vigna, Ernesto
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Iron overload is a pathological condition resulting from a congenital impairment of its regulation, increased intestinal iron absorption secondary to bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, or a chronic transfusional regimen. In normal conditions, intracellular and systemic mechanisms contribute to maintaining iron balance. When this complex homeostatic mechanism fails, an iron overload could be present. Detecting an iron overload is not easy. The gold standard remains the liver biopsy, even if it is invasive and dangerous. Identifying iron using noninvasive techniques allowed a better understanding of the rate of iron overload in different organs, with a low risk for the patient. Estimating serum ferritin (mg/L) is the easiest and, consequently, the most employed diagnostic tool for assessing body iron stores, even if it could be a not specific method. The most common hematological causes of iron overload are myelodysplastic syndromes, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. In all of these conditions, three drugs have been approved for the treatment of iron overload: deferiprone, deferoxamine, and deferasirox. These chelators have been demonstrated to help lower tissue iron levels and prevent iron overload complications, improving event-free survival (EFS). Nowadays, the decision to start chelation and which chelator to choose remains the joint decision of the clinician and patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
2023
chelation therapy
iron metabolism
iron overload
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/343507
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