Currently available vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective but not able to keep the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic completely under control. Alternative R&D strategies are required to induce a long-lasting immunological response and to reduce adverse events as well as to favor rapid development and large-scale production. Several technological platforms have been used to develop COVID-19 vaccines, including inactivated viruses, recombinant proteins, DNA-and RNA-based vaccines, virus-vectored vaccines, and virus-like particles. In general, mRNA vaccines, protein-based vaccines, and vectored vaccines have shown a high level of protection against COVID-19. However, the mutation-prone nature of the spike (S) protein affects long-lasting vaccine protection and its effectiveness, and vaccinated people can become infected with new variants, also showing high virus levels. In addition, adverse effects may occur, some of them related to the interaction of the S protein with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). Thus, there are some concerns that need to be addressed and challenges regarding logistic problems, such as strict storage at low temperatures for some vaccines. In this review, we discuss the limits of vaccines developed against COVID-19 and possible innovative approaches.

COVID-19 Vaccines: Current and Future Perspectives

Corsonello A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Currently available vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective but not able to keep the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic completely under control. Alternative R&D strategies are required to induce a long-lasting immunological response and to reduce adverse events as well as to favor rapid development and large-scale production. Several technological platforms have been used to develop COVID-19 vaccines, including inactivated viruses, recombinant proteins, DNA-and RNA-based vaccines, virus-vectored vaccines, and virus-like particles. In general, mRNA vaccines, protein-based vaccines, and vectored vaccines have shown a high level of protection against COVID-19. However, the mutation-prone nature of the spike (S) protein affects long-lasting vaccine protection and its effectiveness, and vaccinated people can become infected with new variants, also showing high virus levels. In addition, adverse effects may occur, some of them related to the interaction of the S protein with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). Thus, there are some concerns that need to be addressed and challenges regarding logistic problems, such as strict storage at low temperatures for some vaccines. In this review, we discuss the limits of vaccines developed against COVID-19 and possible innovative approaches.
2022
COVID-19
innovative approaches
pandemic
recombinant vaccines
S protein
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/344589
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