The burden of atherosclerotic disease worldwide necessitates implementing the treatment of its risk factors. Among them, hypercholesterolemia has a central role. In addition to conventional small organic compounds and the recently introduced monoclonal antibodies, new technologies are arising such as the antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that operate upstream, blocking the mRNA translation of the proteins specifically involved in lipid metabolism. In this review, we briefly explain the mechanisms of action of these molecules and discuss the difficulties related to their in vivo use as therapeutical agents. We go over the oligonucleotides tested in clinical trials that could potentially revolutionize the care of patients by acting on proteins involved in the lipoprotein metabolism and regulation, namely: angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3); lipoprotein a (Lp(a)); apolipoprotein B (Apo B); apolipoprotein C III (Apo C-III); and proprotein convertase subtilisin–kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Finally, the differences between ASOs and siRNAs, their future possible clinical applications, and the role of Inclisiran, a siRNA direct against PCSK9 to reduce LDL-C, were reviewed in detail.

Antisense Oligonucleotides and Small Interfering RNA for the Treatment of Dyslipidemias

Polimeni A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The burden of atherosclerotic disease worldwide necessitates implementing the treatment of its risk factors. Among them, hypercholesterolemia has a central role. In addition to conventional small organic compounds and the recently introduced monoclonal antibodies, new technologies are arising such as the antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that operate upstream, blocking the mRNA translation of the proteins specifically involved in lipid metabolism. In this review, we briefly explain the mechanisms of action of these molecules and discuss the difficulties related to their in vivo use as therapeutical agents. We go over the oligonucleotides tested in clinical trials that could potentially revolutionize the care of patients by acting on proteins involved in the lipoprotein metabolism and regulation, namely: angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3); lipoprotein a (Lp(a)); apolipoprotein B (Apo B); apolipoprotein C III (Apo C-III); and proprotein convertase subtilisin–kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Finally, the differences between ASOs and siRNAs, their future possible clinical applications, and the role of Inclisiran, a siRNA direct against PCSK9 to reduce LDL-C, were reviewed in detail.
2022
ASO
hypercholesterolemia
miRNA
siRNAF
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/345449
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