Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are crucial in vascular remodeling. They exert pivotal roles in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, vascular response to injury, and restenosis after transcatheter angioplasty. As a witness of their importance in the cardiovascular system, a large body of evidence has accumulated about the role played by micro RNAs (miRNA) in modulating both VSMCs and ECs. More recently, a growing number of long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) came beneath the spotlights in this research field. Several mechanisms have been revealed by which lncRNAs are able to exert a relevant biological impact on vascular remodeling. The aim of this review is to provide an integrated summary of ncRNAs that exert a relevant biological function in VSMCs and ECs of the vascular wall, with emphasis on the available clinical evidence of the potential usefulness of these molecules as circulating biomarkers of in-stent restenosis.
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