An efficient, eco-compatible, and very cheap method for the construction of fully substituted pyrazoles (Pzs) via eliminative nitrilimine-alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (ENAC) reaction was developed in excellent yield and high regioselectivity. Enaminones and nitrilimines generated in situ were selected as dipolarophiles and dipoles, respectively. A deep screening of the employed base, solvent, and temperature was carried out to optimize reaction conditions. Recycling tests of ionic liquid were performed, furnishing efficient performance until six cycles. Finally, a plausible mechanism of cycloaddition was proposed. Then, the effect of three different structures of Pzs was evaluated on the F1FO-ATPase activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. The Pz derivatives’ titration curves of 6a, 6h, and 6o on the F1FO-ATPase showed a reduced activity of 86%, 35%, and 31%, respectively. Enzyme inhibition analysis depicted an uncompetitive mechanism with the typical formation of the tertiary complex enzyme-substrate-inhibitor (ESI). The dissociation constant of the ESI complex (Ki’) in the presence of the 6a had a lower order of magnitude than other Pzs. The pyrazole core might set the specific mechanism of inhibition with the F1FO-ATPase, whereas specific functional groups of Pzs might modulate the binding affinity. The mPTP opening decreased in Pz-treated mitochondria and the Pzs’ inhibitory effect on the mPTP was concentration-dependent with 6a and 6o. Indeed, the mPTP was more efficiently blocked with 0.1 mM 6a than with 1 mM 6a. On the contrary, 1 mM 6o had stronger desensitization of mPTP formation than 0.1 mM 6o. The F1FO-ATPase is a target of Pzs blocking mPTP formation.

Novel Regioselective Synthesis of 1,3,4,5-Tetrasubstituted Pyrazoles and Biochemical Valuation on F1FO-ATPase and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Formation

Vincenzo Algieri
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Paola Costanzo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Antonio Jiritano
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Fabrizio Olivito
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Matteo Antonio Tallarida
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Loredana Maiuolo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Antonio De Nino
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

An efficient, eco-compatible, and very cheap method for the construction of fully substituted pyrazoles (Pzs) via eliminative nitrilimine-alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (ENAC) reaction was developed in excellent yield and high regioselectivity. Enaminones and nitrilimines generated in situ were selected as dipolarophiles and dipoles, respectively. A deep screening of the employed base, solvent, and temperature was carried out to optimize reaction conditions. Recycling tests of ionic liquid were performed, furnishing efficient performance until six cycles. Finally, a plausible mechanism of cycloaddition was proposed. Then, the effect of three different structures of Pzs was evaluated on the F1FO-ATPase activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. The Pz derivatives’ titration curves of 6a, 6h, and 6o on the F1FO-ATPase showed a reduced activity of 86%, 35%, and 31%, respectively. Enzyme inhibition analysis depicted an uncompetitive mechanism with the typical formation of the tertiary complex enzyme-substrate-inhibitor (ESI). The dissociation constant of the ESI complex (Ki’) in the presence of the 6a had a lower order of magnitude than other Pzs. The pyrazole core might set the specific mechanism of inhibition with the F1FO-ATPase, whereas specific functional groups of Pzs might modulate the binding affinity. The mPTP opening decreased in Pz-treated mitochondria and the Pzs’ inhibitory effect on the mPTP was concentration-dependent with 6a and 6o. Indeed, the mPTP was more efficiently blocked with 0.1 mM 6a than with 1 mM 6a. On the contrary, 1 mM 6o had stronger desensitization of mPTP formation than 0.1 mM 6o. The F1FO-ATPase is a target of Pzs blocking mPTP formation.
2023
pyrazoles; 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition; hydrazonyl chlorides; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; F1FO-ATPase
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/346336
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