: The lack of data on the chronic effects of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites on non-target aquatic organisms creates a gap in knowledge about the comprehensive impacts of excessive and repeated pesticide use. Therefore, this study evaluates the long-term effects of propachlor ethanolic sulfonic acid (PROP-ESA) after 10 (T1) and 20 (T2) days at the environmental level of 3.5 μg.L-1 (E1) and its 10x fold multiply 35 μg.L-1 (E2) on a model organism Mytilus galloprovincialis. To this end, the effects of PROP-ESA usually showed a time- and dose-dependent trend, especially in its amount in soft mussel tissue. The bioconcentration factor increased from T1 to T2 in both exposure groups - from 2.12 to 5.30 in E1 and 2.32 to 5.48 in E2. Biochemical haemolymph profile and haemocyte viability were not affected by PROP-ESA exposure. In addition, the viability of digestive gland (DG) cells decreased only in E2 compared to control and E1 after T1. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels increased in E2 after T1 in gills, and DG, superoxidase dismutase activity and oxidatively modified proteins were not affected by PROP-ESA. Histopathological observation showed several damages to gills (e.g., increased vacuolation, over-production of mucus, loss of cilia) and DG (e.g., growing haemocyte trend infiltrations, alterations of tubules). This study revealed a potential risk of chloroacetanilide herbicide, propachlor, via its primary metabolite in the Bivalve bioindicator species M. galloprovincialis. Furthermore, considering the possibility of the biomagnification effect, the most prominent threat poses the ability of PROP-ESA to be accumulated in edible mussel tissues. Therefore, future research about the toxicity of pesticide metabolites alone or their mixtures is needed to gain comprehensive results about their impacts on living non-target organisms.

Fitness assessment of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 after exposure to herbicide metabolite propachlor ESA

Filice, Mariacristina;Caferro, Alessia;Imbrogno, Sandra;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: The lack of data on the chronic effects of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites on non-target aquatic organisms creates a gap in knowledge about the comprehensive impacts of excessive and repeated pesticide use. Therefore, this study evaluates the long-term effects of propachlor ethanolic sulfonic acid (PROP-ESA) after 10 (T1) and 20 (T2) days at the environmental level of 3.5 μg.L-1 (E1) and its 10x fold multiply 35 μg.L-1 (E2) on a model organism Mytilus galloprovincialis. To this end, the effects of PROP-ESA usually showed a time- and dose-dependent trend, especially in its amount in soft mussel tissue. The bioconcentration factor increased from T1 to T2 in both exposure groups - from 2.12 to 5.30 in E1 and 2.32 to 5.48 in E2. Biochemical haemolymph profile and haemocyte viability were not affected by PROP-ESA exposure. In addition, the viability of digestive gland (DG) cells decreased only in E2 compared to control and E1 after T1. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels increased in E2 after T1 in gills, and DG, superoxidase dismutase activity and oxidatively modified proteins were not affected by PROP-ESA. Histopathological observation showed several damages to gills (e.g., increased vacuolation, over-production of mucus, loss of cilia) and DG (e.g., growing haemocyte trend infiltrations, alterations of tubules). This study revealed a potential risk of chloroacetanilide herbicide, propachlor, via its primary metabolite in the Bivalve bioindicator species M. galloprovincialis. Furthermore, considering the possibility of the biomagnification effect, the most prominent threat poses the ability of PROP-ESA to be accumulated in edible mussel tissues. Therefore, future research about the toxicity of pesticide metabolites alone or their mixtures is needed to gain comprehensive results about their impacts on living non-target organisms.
2023
Cell viability
Chloroacetanilide
Cytotoxicity
Histology
Mollusca
Oxidative stress
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/351097
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