: The skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue. Its ability to respond to external stimuli and challenges allows it to face the functional needs of the organism. In the goldfish Carassius auratus, a model of hypoxia resistance, exposure to reduced oxygen is accompanied by an improvement of the swimming performance, relying on a sustained contractile behavior of the skeletal muscle. At the moment, limited information is available on the mechanisms underlying these responses. We here evaluated the effects of short- (4 days) and long- (20 days) term exposure to moderate water hypoxia on the goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on oxidative status and mitochondrial dynamics. No differences in lipid peroxidation, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), and oxidatively modified proteins (OMP) were detected in animals exposed to hypoxia with respect to their normoxic counterparts. Exposure to short-term hypoxia was characterized by an enhanced SOD activity and expression, paralleled by increased levels of Nrf2, a regulator of the antioxidant cell response, and HSP70, a chaperone also acting as a redox sensor. The expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM) and abundance (VDAC) and of the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was similar under normoxia and under both short- and long-term hypoxia, thus excluding a rearrangement of the mitochondrial apparatus. Only an increase of PGC1α (a transcription factor involved in mitochondrial dynamics) was detected after 20 days of hypoxia. Our results revealed novel aspects of the molecular mechanisms that in the goldfish skeletal muscle may sustain the response to hypoxia, thus contributing to adequate tissue function to organism requirements.

Effects of environmental hypoxia on the goldfish skeletal muscle: Focus on oxidative status and mitochondrial dynamics

Filice M.;Caferro A.;Gattuso A.
;
Sperone E.;Agnisola C.;Cerra M. C.;Imbrogno S.
2024-01-01

Abstract

: The skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue. Its ability to respond to external stimuli and challenges allows it to face the functional needs of the organism. In the goldfish Carassius auratus, a model of hypoxia resistance, exposure to reduced oxygen is accompanied by an improvement of the swimming performance, relying on a sustained contractile behavior of the skeletal muscle. At the moment, limited information is available on the mechanisms underlying these responses. We here evaluated the effects of short- (4 days) and long- (20 days) term exposure to moderate water hypoxia on the goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on oxidative status and mitochondrial dynamics. No differences in lipid peroxidation, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), and oxidatively modified proteins (OMP) were detected in animals exposed to hypoxia with respect to their normoxic counterparts. Exposure to short-term hypoxia was characterized by an enhanced SOD activity and expression, paralleled by increased levels of Nrf2, a regulator of the antioxidant cell response, and HSP70, a chaperone also acting as a redox sensor. The expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM) and abundance (VDAC) and of the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was similar under normoxia and under both short- and long-term hypoxia, thus excluding a rearrangement of the mitochondrial apparatus. Only an increase of PGC1α (a transcription factor involved in mitochondrial dynamics) was detected after 20 days of hypoxia. Our results revealed novel aspects of the molecular mechanisms that in the goldfish skeletal muscle may sustain the response to hypoxia, thus contributing to adequate tissue function to organism requirements.
2024
HSP70
Mitochondria
Nrf2
Oxidative stress
SOD
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/362860
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