Introduction: Several studies have suggested that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with olfactory impairment. However, to date, the impact of renal replacement therapies has only been partly defined. Methods: We tested the olfactory function of 235 participants [50 kidney transplant recipients (KT), 49 hemodialyzed patients (HD), 30 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD), 51 patients with CKD not on dialysis (ND-CKD) and 55 healthy subjects (HS)] by the Sniffin' Sticks test (Burghardt®, Wedel, Germany), including the sub-tests for the determination of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), odor identification (I). Each subtest result was then summed up to a composite score, known as the TDI score. The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT22), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and olfactory function Visual Analogue Scale (ofVAS) were also performed. Results: The mean TDI score was significantly lower (and consistent with hyposmia), in HD, PD and ND-CKD compared to HS and KT (ANOVA p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in the I and D tests, and with the T score, though with regard to the latter, only in PD and ND-CKD patients. Multiple comparisons among groups demonstrated no significant differences between KT and HS. After adjustments for confounding factors, a significant linear association was found between both urea (β - 0.03, p < 0.003) and eGFR (β 0.08, p < 0.001) with TDI score. No significant association was observed between the TDI score and the ofVAS score (p = 0.293). Conclusions: Olfactory impairment affects a large number of CKD patients in the pre-dialysis phase as well as those on dialysis. Kidney transplantation may reverse this condition with a possible positive impact on the quality of life and social behaviors/relationships.

Impact of renal replacement therapies on olfactory ability: results of a cross-sectional case control study

Gianluigi Zaza
2022-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Several studies have suggested that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with olfactory impairment. However, to date, the impact of renal replacement therapies has only been partly defined. Methods: We tested the olfactory function of 235 participants [50 kidney transplant recipients (KT), 49 hemodialyzed patients (HD), 30 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD), 51 patients with CKD not on dialysis (ND-CKD) and 55 healthy subjects (HS)] by the Sniffin' Sticks test (Burghardt®, Wedel, Germany), including the sub-tests for the determination of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), odor identification (I). Each subtest result was then summed up to a composite score, known as the TDI score. The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT22), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and olfactory function Visual Analogue Scale (ofVAS) were also performed. Results: The mean TDI score was significantly lower (and consistent with hyposmia), in HD, PD and ND-CKD compared to HS and KT (ANOVA p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in the I and D tests, and with the T score, though with regard to the latter, only in PD and ND-CKD patients. Multiple comparisons among groups demonstrated no significant differences between KT and HS. After adjustments for confounding factors, a significant linear association was found between both urea (β - 0.03, p < 0.003) and eGFR (β 0.08, p < 0.001) with TDI score. No significant association was observed between the TDI score and the ofVAS score (p = 0.293). Conclusions: Olfactory impairment affects a large number of CKD patients in the pre-dialysis phase as well as those on dialysis. Kidney transplantation may reverse this condition with a possible positive impact on the quality of life and social behaviors/relationships.
2022
Chronic kidney disease
Hemodialysis
Kidney transplantation
Olfactory function
Peritoneal dialysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/365972
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