Purpose: Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of mortality among end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Cathepsin-K (CatK), a small cysteine protease involved in bone and extracellular matrix remodeling, has recently emerged as a key-factor in the pathogenesis of various conditions predisposing to CV disease, including atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, and vascular calcification. In this pilot prospective study, we aimed at evaluating the clinical significance and the predictive power of CatK in a small cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: Cathepsin-K was measured in 54 prevalent HD patients and in 30 controls together with routine parameters. Patients were then followed up to 26 months and the time of cardiovascular death (endpoint of the study prospective phase) recorded. Results: CatK levels were increased in the HD cohort as compared with controls (p < 0.001). In HD patients, CatK was also independently correlated to PTH (β = 0.368; p = 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (β = 0.383; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (β = 0.260; p = 0.01), and white cell count (β = − 0.219; p = 0.02). After baseline assessment, patients were followed for CV death (mean follow-up 24.8 ± 3.1 months). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a worsen survival (log-rank p = 0.04) in HD patients with CatK levels > 440 pg/mL (best ROC-derived cut-off with 69.6% sensitivity and 79.8% specificity) with a crude HR (Mantel–Haenszel) of CV death of 3.46 (95% CI 1.89–13.44). Conclusions: In prevalent HD patients, altered CatK levels may reflect mineral dysmetabolism and inflammation, and predict CV death in the mid-term. These preliminary findings prompt the rationale for further investigations on larger cohorts to validate CatK as a biomarker for improving CV risk stratification in ESKD.

Cathepsin-K is a potential cardiovascular risk biomarker in prevalent hemodialysis patients

Provenzano M.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of mortality among end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Cathepsin-K (CatK), a small cysteine protease involved in bone and extracellular matrix remodeling, has recently emerged as a key-factor in the pathogenesis of various conditions predisposing to CV disease, including atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, and vascular calcification. In this pilot prospective study, we aimed at evaluating the clinical significance and the predictive power of CatK in a small cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: Cathepsin-K was measured in 54 prevalent HD patients and in 30 controls together with routine parameters. Patients were then followed up to 26 months and the time of cardiovascular death (endpoint of the study prospective phase) recorded. Results: CatK levels were increased in the HD cohort as compared with controls (p < 0.001). In HD patients, CatK was also independently correlated to PTH (β = 0.368; p = 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (β = 0.383; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (β = 0.260; p = 0.01), and white cell count (β = − 0.219; p = 0.02). After baseline assessment, patients were followed for CV death (mean follow-up 24.8 ± 3.1 months). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a worsen survival (log-rank p = 0.04) in HD patients with CatK levels > 440 pg/mL (best ROC-derived cut-off with 69.6% sensitivity and 79.8% specificity) with a crude HR (Mantel–Haenszel) of CV death of 3.46 (95% CI 1.89–13.44). Conclusions: In prevalent HD patients, altered CatK levels may reflect mineral dysmetabolism and inflammation, and predict CV death in the mid-term. These preliminary findings prompt the rationale for further investigations on larger cohorts to validate CatK as a biomarker for improving CV risk stratification in ESKD.
2021
Cardiovascular risk
Cathepsin-K
ESKD
Hemodialysis
Mineral bone disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/366367
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